I know that the stress of illnesses and hospitalizations can increase blood glucose levels. As a nurse I find that many patients are non- compliant with their diabetes management. This website is to help you focus on the prevention of complications related to diabetes.
The purpose is of this website is to teach you the importance of controlling your blood glucose levels and preventing major complications from arising. One of the main goals is to improve self-care skills and enhance your ability to cope with chronic illness (Engelke, 2014).
It is important for ma as a nurse to make sure the manifestations whether from hypo/hyperglycemia are stabilized and try to reduce the risk for any further complications (Schub, 2015).
It is important for you to understand the disease process of diabetes type 1 and help you identify the signs and symptoms. Some goals of this plan include: better Hga1c levels, less complications, and the care needed if complications do arise.
You should be able to measure your glucose levels at regular intervals, take medications correctly and as prescribed, manage your diets and prevent complications by keeping your glucose level within the expected parameters of: 70-110 mg/dL.
Overview of Diabetes:
This can help you understand the disease process. You will need information on what signs and symptoms to look out for. All of the information below is a good reference for you.
- Definition/ etiology:
According to the article written by Schub, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 (DM1) formerly known as Juvenile- onset diabetes is a metabolic disease characterized by an insulin deficiency. The deficiency of insulin is the result of an autoimmune destruction of the insulin producing enzymes (pancreatic B-cells) in the pancreas. Without enough insulin, glucose builds up in the blood instead of going into cells; which cause hyperglycemia. If this is not treated appropriately there is a disruption in the metabolism of fat, protein, and carbohydrates which leads to:
-Not enough glucose to the brain and retina
– Acid-base imbalances (systemically)
– Inadequate blood supply to the tissues
-Widespread vascular degeneration and neuropathy
- Risk factors/ incidence:
Diabetes Mellitus type 1 affects over 1 million people in the United States. DM1 can occur at any age but about half of the patients that are diagnosed are under the age of 20.It affects 1 in every 400-600 children and males over females. The incidence is higher for Caucasians than it is for African Americans. These patients have a higher risk for cardiovascular disease, blindness, and end stage renal disease (Schub, 2014).
- Clinical Manifestations:
The article Diabetes Type 1, listed the clinical manifestations as: Polydipsia, Polyuria, Polyphagia, unexplained weight loss, dehydration, lethargy/weakness, confusion, warm, dry, and flushed skin, recurrent infections or delayed wound healing and nausea vomiting, or abdominal pain. (Schub, 2014)
-Hypoglycemia- shakiness, nervousness, diaphoresis, headache, confusion, dizziness, pallor, etc.
-Hyperglycemia-confusion, lethargy, thirst, N/V, rapid respirations, & fruity breath
The article Diabetes, Type 1 mentioned that the diagnostic criterion for DM1 includes: Fasting blood glucose level of 126mg/dL or greater, Non- fasting glucose of 200 mg/dL or greater, HbA1C of 7% or greater (expected range 4 to 6) (Schub, 2014).
- Therapeutic Management/treatment:
Medications such as Insulin are used to treat type 1 diabetes. Insulin can be administered by injection or by the use of a pump. The types of insulin usually used include:
-Insulin lispro (Humalog) -rapid acting
-Regular Insulin (Humulin R) – short acting
-NPH insulin (Humulin N) – intermediate acting
-Insulin glargine (Lantus)- long acting *can’t be mixed*
It is so important that you adhere to your prescribed medication regimen.
DKA is a life-threatening medical emergency
It is characterized by a blood glucose level over 300mg/dL.
Signs and symptoms include: N/V, fruity breath odor, Kussmaul respirations (very rapid deep breathing), dehydration, confusion, and ketones in the blood or urine, sudden weight loss, blurred vision, and if left untreated it can lead to a coma (Adler, 2014).
This is why I stress the importance of managing your blood sugars. Uncontrolled levels can lead to DKA and other complications.
It is also important for you to ensure adequate foot care. Making sure to wash and inspect your feet daily and seek medical care if an area starts to breakdown.
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Reference List (in proper APA formatting):
Adler A. Diabetic Ketoacidosis in children. J CINAHL Nursing Guide EBSCO
Publishing 2014 Oct 17. Retrieved October 30 2015 from
Engelke, Z. (2014). Patient Education: Teaching the Adult with Diabetes Mellitus, Type
1. CINAHL Nursing Guide. Retrieved October 30 2015 from
Schub T; Kornusky. Diabetes Mellitus Type 1. J CINAHL Nursing Guide
EBSCO Publishing 2014 Oct 17. Retrieved October 30 2015 from
American diabetes association
http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions diabetes/in-depth diabetes-management/art-20045803
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