Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

The concept of COPD does not seem to be a controversial topic. All of the literature located directly correlate to the media clips that I chose, as well as to the primary authorities regarding the disease. WebMD suggests that some of the ways to combat COPD are building stamina through cardiovascular exercise guided via pulmonary rehab, oxygen use, and cessation of smoking. They also recommend during an attack to breathe through pursed lips in order to steady oxygen intake. See what WebMD has to say in the clip below:


dt_140310_inhaler_senior_800x600 Healtihnation’s media clip provides a breakdown of the types and effects of COPD; chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma. It describes each respectively as the hardening and enlarging of the aveoli in the lungs, increases mucus production and inability to clear mucus from the lungs, and the constriction and/or inflammation of the bronchial tubes. It also states that these constitute a long term blockage of airways and describes that although there can be some genetic or hereditary cause, 85% of COPD cases are due to the effects of smoking. Take a look at the clip here:

What is COPD? on HealthiNation

quit-smoking-hi The New York Times ran a report in 2007 highlighting the case of one COPD sufferer, and her coming to terms with the effects and treatment of the disease. She is a part of the 85% of diagnoses caused by smoking. The report also cited that COPD is the fourth most frequent cause of death in the US, and predicted to be third by 2020. Actual number of cases beat their time estimate, as COPD is now the 3rd leading cause of death according to the NIH as of 2016. The clip also provided some demographics of sufferers, such as half of the diagnosed COPD patients are under 65 and that there are at least twelve million people diagnosed, with estimates of double that figure due unreported cases. The reason for the unreported cases is that many sufferers may think they are simply out of shape or have chronic flu or cold symptoms. The report also listed treatment options, such as antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, bronchodilators, surgery to excise infected lung tissue, dietary restrictions, and increased exercise, as well as the primary diagnosis method of thermometry, also known as spirometry.  See the report below:

The primary authoritative sources generally are uniform in information regarding COPD, as the disease process is well understood. Each similarly states the cause of, process, symptoms, and treatment options. The National Institute of Health has a more comprehensive of the three, thoroughly detailing all aspects from cause through treatment. According to it, the disease process is defined by less air flow in and out of the airways due to the airways and air sacs losing their elastic quality, the walls between many of the air sacs being destroyed, the walls of the airways become thick and inflamed, or the airways make more mucus than usual, which can clog them. codp1 The American Lung Association describes COPD as including two main conditions; emphysema and chronic bronchitis, cause by long-term exposure to lung irritants that damage the lungs and the airways. The most common cause being cigarette smoke, but also breathing in secondhand smoke, air pollution, or chemical fumes or dust from the environment or workplace also can contribute to COPD. It also describes a rare genetic factor called alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency of the liver that may also play a role in causing COPD. This condition exacerbates the damage the lung experience if exposed to smoke or other irritants. It also suggests people who have asthma can develop COPD due to the chronic inflammation it causes, narrowing the airways. Treatment usually can reverse the inflammation and narrowing, though if not, COPD can manifest. healthy-vs-copd The CDC website indicates treatment of COPD requires a careful and thorough evaluation by a physician. “COPD treatment can alleviate symptoms, decrease the frequency and severity of exacerbations, and increase exercise tolerance. For those who smoke, the most important aspect of treatment is smoking cessation. Avoiding tobacco smoke and removing other air pollutants from the patient’s home or workplace are also important (, 2016)” While each site provides its own format, all three provide essentially the same information which supports the details given in each of the video clips chosen. This leads me to conclude that there is a widely agreed upon consensus on how COPD is caused, how the disease progresses, and how it can be treated, as well as that since there is no cure, prevention of the disease through abstaining from smoking is the best recommendation to avoid COPD. images References: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Retrieved November 02, 2016, from COPD. Retrieved November 02, 2016, from Living With COPD – Watch WebMD Video. Retrieved October 28, 2016, from Olsen, E., & Grady, D. (2007.). Gasping for Air: Life With C.O.P.D. – Video – Retrieved October 28, 2016, from What is Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)? Retrieved October 28, 2016, from What Is COPD? – NHLBI, NIH. Retrieved November 02, 2016, from