Naloxone: Bringing a New Hope for Addicts

Death from opioid overdose in the United Stated has greatly increased in the past 20 years. Focus on addiction has changed from imprisonment to treatment. Changing the focus and increasing the availability of Naloxone, a drug used to reverse the effects of an overdose, to EMTs, law enforcement, families and friends of addicts has greatly decreased the risk of death from overdose. These deaths have opened up the discussion of pharmacies providing Naloxone without a prescription and more insurance coverage to maintain the cost-effectiveness of programs. Multiple programs, both local and federal, have been started to provide lower rates for treatment and Naloxone use to decrease deaths.

Overdose is the leading cause of accidental deaths in the United States. In 2014 47,055 deaths were reported. 18,893 of those deaths were due to prescription painkillers and 10,574 were due to heroin overdose (ASAM, 2016). Many of these deaths could be prevented if Naloxone was available to family and friends.

Some questions about Naloxone:

How does Naloxone work? How is it given?

When a person overdoses they stop breathing. Naloxone is most effective when used with CPR. If the first dose of Naloxone doesn’t work another can be given with no adverse effects. (Engleman, n.d.). Basically Naloxone works to reverse an overdose. It is a drug that has been designed to block the opioid from entering into the brain and reversing the effect of the drug. It can be given as a nasal spray, or as a shot. The nasal spray works within 3-4 minutes and the shot works within 2-3 minutes. The effects of Naloxone can last 60-90 minutes which is usually plenty of time for EMTs to arrive. Naloxone is also more effective if the person who overdosed is given CPR. (Engleman, 2016)

While this video is Canadian, it explains how Naloxone works and how it is given.

I understand why EMTs have it, but why police, family and friends? What kind of training is needed/provided?

 

It is important for families and friends to be provided with Naloxone because they are usually the first to find the person who overdosed. The same goes to police, often they are the first to arrive at the scene, before the ambulance arrives. Training for safe use of Naloxone in Rhode Island is provided by the Naloxone Overdose Prevention and Education Program of Rhode Island (NOPE-RI) (Engleman, n.d.). The nasal spray is easiest to use, it is placed into a nostril and sprayed. The shot requires more training but it is injected into a large muscle, usually the thigh or the upper arm.

What happens after they go to the hospital?

Many addicts go to treatment after the hospital. There have also been local programs set up to decrease deaths from overdose. In Gloucester Massachusetts a program called the Angel Program was developed as a way for addicts to come and get into treatment faster. Treatment is expensive and insurance doesn’t always cover it. (Mankiewitcz, 2016).

Here is a video of the Police chief in Gloucester, MA about the Angel Program:

Sources

Harm Reduction Coalition, (n.d.) Administer

Naloxone overdose response. Retrieved

from http://harmreduction.org/issues/overdose-prevention/overview/overdose-basics/responding-to-opioid-overdose/administer-naloxone/

 

Engleman, A., (n.d) Naloxone and overdose

prevention education program of Rhode Island. Retrieved from http://www.NOPERI.org

Mankiewicz, J., Harapax, I., Nguyen, T., &

Schuppe, J. (2016, June 5). How a

heroin crisis started a police revolution. Retrieved from http://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/americas-heroin-epidemic/how-heroin-crisis-sparked-police-revolution-n571551

SAMHSA, (2015, March). Federal guidelines

for opioid treatment programs.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

The concept of COPD does not seem to be a controversial topic. All of the literature located directly correlate to the media clips that I chose, as well as to the primary authorities regarding the disease. WebMD suggests that some of the ways to combat COPD are building stamina through cardiovascular exercise guided via pulmonary rehab, oxygen use, and cessation of smoking. They also recommend during an attack to breathe through pursed lips in order to steady oxygen intake. See what WebMD has to say in the clip below:

COPD on WebMD

dt_140310_inhaler_senior_800x600 Healtihnation’s media clip provides a breakdown of the types and effects of COPD; chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma. It describes each respectively as the hardening and enlarging of the aveoli in the lungs, increases mucus production and inability to clear mucus from the lungs, and the constriction and/or inflammation of the bronchial tubes. It also states that these constitute a long term blockage of airways and describes that although there can be some genetic or hereditary cause, 85% of COPD cases are due to the effects of smoking. Take a look at the clip here:

What is COPD? on HealthiNation

quit-smoking-hi The New York Times ran a report in 2007 highlighting the case of one COPD sufferer, and her coming to terms with the effects and treatment of the disease. She is a part of the 85% of diagnoses caused by smoking. The report also cited that COPD is the fourth most frequent cause of death in the US, and predicted to be third by 2020. Actual number of cases beat their time estimate, as COPD is now the 3rd leading cause of death according to the NIH as of 2016. The clip also provided some demographics of sufferers, such as half of the diagnosed COPD patients are under 65 and that there are at least twelve million people diagnosed, with estimates of double that figure due unreported cases. The reason for the unreported cases is that many sufferers may think they are simply out of shape or have chronic flu or cold symptoms. The report also listed treatment options, such as antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, bronchodilators, surgery to excise infected lung tissue, dietary restrictions, and increased exercise, as well as the primary diagnosis method of thermometry, also known as spirometry.  See the report below:

The primary authoritative sources generally are uniform in information regarding COPD, as the disease process is well understood. Each similarly states the cause of, process, symptoms, and treatment options. The National Institute of Health has a more comprehensive of the three, thoroughly detailing all aspects from cause through treatment. According to it, the disease process is defined by less air flow in and out of the airways due to the airways and air sacs losing their elastic quality, the walls between many of the air sacs being destroyed, the walls of the airways become thick and inflamed, or the airways make more mucus than usual, which can clog them. codp1 The American Lung Association describes COPD as including two main conditions; emphysema and chronic bronchitis, cause by long-term exposure to lung irritants that damage the lungs and the airways. The most common cause being cigarette smoke, but also breathing in secondhand smoke, air pollution, or chemical fumes or dust from the environment or workplace also can contribute to COPD. It also describes a rare genetic factor called alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency of the liver that may also play a role in causing COPD. This condition exacerbates the damage the lung experience if exposed to smoke or other irritants. It also suggests people who have asthma can develop COPD due to the chronic inflammation it causes, narrowing the airways. Treatment usually can reverse the inflammation and narrowing, though if not, COPD can manifest. healthy-vs-copd The CDC website indicates treatment of COPD requires a careful and thorough evaluation by a physician. “COPD treatment can alleviate symptoms, decrease the frequency and severity of exacerbations, and increase exercise tolerance. For those who smoke, the most important aspect of treatment is smoking cessation. Avoiding tobacco smoke and removing other air pollutants from the patient’s home or workplace are also important (CDC.gov, 2016)” While each site provides its own format, all three provide essentially the same information which supports the details given in each of the video clips chosen. This leads me to conclude that there is a widely agreed upon consensus on how COPD is caused, how the disease progresses, and how it can be treated, as well as that since there is no cure, prevention of the disease through abstaining from smoking is the best recommendation to avoid COPD. images References: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Retrieved November 02, 2016, from http://www.cdc.gov/copd/index.html COPD. Retrieved November 02, 2016, from http://www.lung.org/lung-health-and-diseases/lung-disease-lookup/copd/ Living With COPD – Watch WebMD Video. Retrieved October 28, 2016, from http://www.webmd.com/lung/video/living-with-copd Olsen, E., & Grady, D. (2007.). Gasping for Air: Life With C.O.P.D. – Video – NYTimes.com. Retrieved October 28, 2016, from http://www.nytimes.com/video/health/1194817104570/gasping-for-air-life-with-c-o-p-d.html What is Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)? Retrieved October 28, 2016, from http://www.healthination.com/lungs/copd/what-is-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd/ What Is COPD? – NHLBI, NIH. Retrieved November 02, 2016, from http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/copd/

Say No to Low Carb Diets

Are you looking to lose weight?..Exercise and a good diet will provide results. However, there are many misconceptions about nutrition on the internet and people fall for popular/fad diets. An example is the zero to low carb diets.  These diets claim that eating zero to low carbs is the best way to lose weight, but evidence based studies have determined that low carb diets can be “very hard on the body” despite the claims of quick and sustainable weight loss. 

What are Carbohydrates? 

“Carbohydrates (carbs) are the sugars, starches and fibers found in fruits, grains, vegetables and milk products.”

How low carb diets affect your body. 

Decreasing or completely eliminating an entire food group from your diet such as Carbohydrates can cause:

  •  Fatigue/Tiredness, since carbohydrates are the main source used for energy by your body.
  • Deficiency in vital essential  nutrients such as Iron, Vitamin B, and Fiber.
  • Increase risk of heart and kidney disease due to most low carb dieters consuming higher fat and cholesterol foods.
  • Digestion Problems due to Fiber deficiency
  • Risk of High Blood Pressure
  • Increased headaches

And many more possible health risks!

 

In the video below, a registered nutritionist speaks on the importance of consuming enough carbohydrates on a daily basis for proper body function. 

 

Studies have shown that Low Carb dieters are at risk of binge eating due to completely depriving themselves from an entire food group. In general low-carb diets have been proven difficult to stick to, and often dieters gain the weight they lost back.

The following video explains a more healthier approach to losing weight. “Flexible Dieting”. This diet allows you to consume any type of food you want as long as you don’t go over your calorie allotment for the day. You will lose weight without having to eliminate any important food group. 

 

Losing weight is a common fitness goal among millions of people of all ages. However, it is important to learn and educate ourselves of the potential risks of attempting any diet. The internet is filled with many useful information however, there is also many false claims that can do more harm than good. When in doubt consult your doctor before considering to  try any diet plan. 

 

 

Sources:

George, L., & L., G. (2005). Low-Carb Lament. Maclean’s, 118(3), 42.

ROBERTSON-ABIAD, S. (2015). The DIET DUEL. Muscle & Fitness Hers, 16(2), 70.

Ben, S. (2016, March 18). Official: Low-carb diets are bad for your health. Daily Mail. p. 22.

Obesity: What are some risk factors?

Obesity increases diabetes, heart disease, and cancer. According to ABCnews, “10 percent of all gallbladder, kidney, liver, and colon cancer could be attributed to excess weight” (page 1). America is known to have 36% of people with obesity.

There are a few effects of obesity:

_91074587_overweight_cancer_risk_624

1.  Cancer

  • The study shows that “5.4 million people”  an increase in body mass index (BMI) would result in additional cancers annually.
  • Obesity contributes 34,000 new cases of cancer in men and 50,000 in women annually.
  • These cases can be avoided if both genders lose 2.2 pounds.

Here is a video on  a link between cancer and obesity :

2. Migraines

  • People with higher BMI, have a higher chance of having episodic migraines.
  • Women over the age of 50 suffered from chronic headaches.

3. Infertility

  • Women have a difficult time getting pregnant, 90% of them developed polycystic ovarian disease ( a condition related to infertility, over a  3 year period).
    • Many women were able to concieve after weight-loss surgery

Here is a video that gives you more details on Infertility and BMI:

 

3. Premature babies

  • Obesity in women increase the chances of having premature babies. BMI  of 35 or over.
  • Having too much fat may inflame and weaken the uterine and cervical membranes.
  • Premature birth causes infant death and long-term disabilities

4. Sleeping difficulty

  • 80% of older obese Americans have a difficult time sleeping.
  • Poor sleep brings on secondary conditions including diabetes, heart disease, and more obesity
  • The most highest health danger is sleep apnea ( a condition in which a person stops breathing for  a few minutes while sleep).
  • “Sleep apnea can be caused by increase fat around the neck that presses down and closes off the soft tissues of the airways while a person is lying down” (page 6).
  • Due to the difficulty of breathing it causes less oxygen into the blood stream

5. Bullied

  • Weight is the number one factor that people are bullied, it causes many tp have suicide thoughts, low self-esteem, and depression.
    • One can lose weight by offering support and encouragement

6. Difficult to find Physician

    • Difficulty finding the right doctor to help them with their weight loss
    • Many switch their providers if the physician is overweight

7.  Less pay

    • “Wider waistbands seem to widen the pay gap” ( page 9).
    • Obese women made less money then obese men

 8 Misconceptions of Losing weight 

Here are some myths to weight loss:

  1. Slow Weight is  Better Weight Loss
  • According to a research study, people who lost weigh faster were able to keep up with their track.
  • People who lost weight slowly, went back to their old habits
  • Weight loss boosts confidence and gives motivation to keep up with their diet, exercise routines, and healthy lifestyle.

2. Realistic Weight Loss Goal

  • Have goals that are easy to reach.
    • For example, beginners can go to the gym once a week and them increase their exercise routine.
    • You can’t stop eating bread that whole week , it has to start with small steps, such as eating less bread

3. You must be ready to lose weight

  • Don’t focus on weight loss in order to lighten up on the pounds
  • Weight loss centers provide diet readiness questionnaire to assess them
  • Willingness to change starts within the individual

4.  Physical education class

  • Exercises for 30 minutes in class will not help loss weight
  • They need to be instructed to loss weight throughout the week

5. “Breastfeeding protects against Obesity”

  • This is false
  • There is no proven factor that breast feeding reduces weight loss
  • It’s a myth

6.  “Never weigh yourself”

– When you weigh yourself daily, you will be able to lose weight

  • When weighing yourself weekly, you will gain weight by not keeping track of your weight

7.  “Genes Aren’t Your Problem”

  • Genes play a big factor in weight gain
  • Epigenetic is an environmental and gene factor that your previous generations had impacted on you
    • For example, your mom and dads diet and exercise routine

8. “ Foods Deserts Make You Fat”

  • Poor BMIs and poor health is connected to area food accessibility.
  • There is no guarantee for residents  intake vegetables and fruits when they have access to them

Here is a video on ways to eat healthy and not starve yourself to lose weight:

 

Here is a break down of losing weight:

 

Here are some ways you can lose weight by WebMD:

1.Don’t subtract food, add food.

  •  Eat more vegetables and fruits it will help, and low- calorie food.
  • Low-calorie food can be reduced fat cheese, low-fat ice cream, and less heavy calories in food.
  • Eat fiber
  • Drink water, and skip out on beer.

2. Don’t work out, do something you love:

  • Burn calories by riding bikes, hiking, washing the car, and other activities that require movement.

3. Go walking for a few minutes on a sunny day.

4. Drink a glass of water before eating a meal.

5.  Share a meal when going to a restaurant.

  • Eating less portions in small bowls and plates.

6.  Try dancing to music when your favorite tune is on. Also, Walk on a treadmill or lift some weights while the commercial is on. All activity throughout the day counts.

7. Always keep yourself occupied so you can skip out on eating on your free time.

8. Become part of the WebMD weight loss community members.

References:

http://abcnews.go.com/Health/cancer-tops-list-health-problems-tied-obesity/story?id=24977349#1

http://abcnews.go.com/Health/weight-loss-myths-lose-today/story?id=24302880

http://www.webmd.com/women/features/weight-loss-tips#1

A Guide to Guillain-Barre Syndrome: History, Treatment, and Recent Medical Connections

 

images

History
  • There is no known cause at this time, and GBS can affect anyone, at any age.
  • Approximately only 1 out of 100,000 people are diagnosed with GBS
  • The first symptom is typically weakness or “pins and needles” in the legs, followed by arms, which could turn into paralysis.
  • Difficulty with facial movements: including smiling, speaking, or eating
  • The body begins to attack itself and its nerves. This destruction makes it difficult for the brain to send messages to the muscles. Muscles become weak, making it difficult to complete daily activities
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, GBS may be associated with the newly discovered Zika Virus
Study of History

A research study was completed with thirty seven clients in Australia over a ten year span to find and describe the cause of Guillain Barre Syndrome.

The results of the study were:

  • The average age of patients when diagnosed was 60 years old
  • Most of the patients needed to stay in the hospital at some point during treatment
  • High success rates with patients being able to walk and take care of themselves 6-12 months after being diagnosed
  • This video reviews the history of Guillain Barre Syndrome and is a good indication of the different aspect of life that can be affected from the disease.
Treatment

index

Occupational and Physical Therapy– used to retrain and strengthen muscles, using exercise, muscle stimulation, and stretching.

Blood Exchange- blood is taken from the body and changed for new blood, which the body must work to replace, reducing the symptoms of GBS, and strengthens the muscles

IV Therapy- injections of proteins are given to the patient, which the body uses to fight against the illness.

Connection to Modern Health Issues

Zika Virus-

images

A study was completed in Puerto Rico to look at the similarities between Zika Virus and how it relates to Guillain Barre Syndrome.

In this study:

  • Fifty six cases of Guillain Barre Syndrome were diagnosed between January and July of 2016
  • 61 percent of these patients showed evidence of Zika Virus.
  • According to this study in seven countries where Zika Virus is common there was an increase in cases of Guillain Barre Syndrome.
  • This study is a new idea that could lead to identifying a cure and find the similarities between GBS and Zika Virus.
  •  
Pregnancy-
A case study was completed to see how Guillain Barre Syndrome can affect pregnancy.
  • The risk of GBS affecting pregnancy is very low.
  • In some pregnancies there can be birth defects of the baby
  • Muscle weakness can also occur with the mother, making delivery difficult.

 

Dirlikov, E., Major, C. G., Mayshack, M., Medina, N., Matos, D., Ryff, K. R., & … Sharp, T. M.   (2016). Guillain-Barré Syndrome During Ongoing Zika Virus Transmission
Puerto Rico, January 1–July 31, 2016. MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, 65(34), 910-914.

Foster, E., Bonavia, L., Green, C., Butler, E., Tiruvoipati, R., & Subramaniam, A. (2016). A descriptive study of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome: Experience from an Australian tertiary level hospital.  Australasian Medical Journal, 9(8), 280-289

Meenakshi-Sundaram, S., Swaminathan, K., Karthik, S. N., & Bharathi, S. (2014). Case Report. Relapsing Guillain-Barre syndrome in pregnancy and postpartum.
Annals Of Indian Academy Of Neurology, 17(3), 352-354.

Rheumatoid Arthritis

By: Internet Archive Book Images

1.3 million Americans have the autoimmune disease, rheumatoid arthritis also known as RA (CNN, 2013). It is more common in woman than in men and it typically effects small joints such as the joints of the hands and feet. Along with effecting small joints, RA typically effects both sides of the body, for example, if the right wrist is effected, typically the left wrist is also effected (Nucleas Medical Media, 2014). Dr Joseph Merola of Brigham and Women’s Hospital claims that individuals with RA are 30-60% more likely to have cardiovascular conditions. 

The clip from CNN mentions that there is higher risk for heart conditions in individuals with RA, but is this true? Can this information be backed up by educational sources? A peer reviewed article, “Rheumatoid arthritis disadvantaged younger patients for cardiovascular (heart) diseases: A meta-analysis” agrees with Dr. Joseph Merola. According to the article, studies showed that there was a higher risk of heart disease in people with RA. The study described in this journal says that RA not only effects the joins of the body but also effects major organs, such as the heart.

As stated before, typical RA symptoms effect the same joint on both sides of the body, according to the video above put out by Nucleas Medical Media. The video also backs up CNNs clip saying that RA is more common in woman than in men. It also explains that besides joints, RA can effect other bodily organs and systems such as:

  • eyes
  • heart
  • lungs
  • bones
  • kidneys
  • nervous system
  • digestive system

A peer reviewed article, “Clinical profile of 266 Filipino patients with rheumatoid arthritis…” explains a study conducted that found RA to typically involve more than one joint at a time. The study actually found that only about 10% of RA cases have RA in just one joint. Of the participants in this study, 91% of them were woman which shows that the majority of individuals with RA are woman. Like the media source above by Nucleus Medical Media states, RA also effects the heart, lungs, bones and kidneys.

Is there a way to control RA without using medications? According to both a medical source by Dr. Angela Agrios, ND (naturopathic doctor) and a peer review article called, “An overview of the role of diet in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis”, certain supplements such as fish oils have been shown to positively effect the symptoms of RA including reducing inflammation and pain in the joins. Dr. Angel Agrios, ND claims that elimination diets are the key to treating RA without medication. She claims in a clip from youtube that processed sugar, refined flour and trans fat can negatively effect RA symptoms and that diets rich in whole foods are the most effective for RA. 

An article titled, “An overview of the role of diet in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis” does not agree with Dr. Angela Agrios’ statements about elimination diets. The article does agree that RA symptoms were improved due to diet changes but says that the connection between the two is not clear enough for a definite answer due to bias opinions.

For the most part, RA is well known and well studies so the information being provided in the media and the information studied in peer reviewed articles agree with each other. Some things such as the best diets for RA may not have definitive information due to the difference in individual needs.

Sources:

Fransen, J. (2016) Rheumatoid arthritis disadvantages younger patients for      cardiovascular disease: A meta-analysis. PLOS ONE, 1-12.

O’connor, A. (2013). An overview of the role of the diet in the treatment of        rheumatoid arthritis. Nutrition Bulletin, 39, 74-88.

Penserga, E. (2014). Clinical profile of 266 Filipino patients with rheumatoid  arthritis included in the rheumatoid arthritis database and registry of Philippine  General Hospital. International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases, 18, 433-438.

Sensory Processing Disorder; It’s More than Just Behavior!

 

sensory-processing-disorderLink to photo above.

Are you a parent who cannot figure out why your child is misbehaving and acting out for the most bizarre reasons? Are you unable to control your child’s tantrums no matter how hard you try?

You are not a poor parent! Your child may be experiencing Sensory Processing Disorder and these behaviors may be out of their control.

What exactly Is Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD)?

Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD) is when the brain cannot produce the appropriate response for the sensory information that is being absorbed. In other words, an individual experiencing SPD has difficulty processing information received through their senses and in turn creates an undesirable action/response. A person with SPD experiences challenges performing even the simplest everyday tasks.

When talking about “sensory information”, it is referring to information being taken in from your seven senses:

  • Sight
  • Sound
  • Touch
  • Smell
  • Taste
  • Hearing
  • Vestibular( movement and balance)
  • Proprioception( body position)

Hypersensitive v. Hyposensitive; Signs and Symptoms

Hypersensitive: Over reactive to sensory stimuli; in other words, your child feels uncomfortable experiencing minor encounters with sensory stimuli and they need to “rid” or “escape” it.

  • Avoids use of playground equipment.
  • Demonstrates anxious behaviors
  • Able to smell things that others cannot smell
  • Is irritated by textures of clothing (i.e. tags)
  • Dislikes being touched and/or hugged
  • Has poor balance
  • Experiences extreme response to noises
  • May notice and become easily distracted by background noise
  • May dislike certain textures of food

This video clarifies hypersensitivity and explains a child’s reaction to certain stimuli and what causes it.

Hyposensitive: Under reactive to sensory stimuli;  in other words, your child feels overwhelmed by the world around him/her and “seeks” out additional sensory information to feel content and safe.

  • Has a constant need to touch people and to be touched
  • Is accident prone and demonstrates impulsive behavior
  • May be fidgety and unable to sit still
  • Often harms others accidentally (doesn’t recognize his/her own strength)
  • May turn the volume loud on devices
  • May put objects in his/her mouth for oral input
  • Constantly seeking movement

This video clarifies hyposensitivity and explains a child’s reaction to certain stimuli and what causes it.

 

SPD Myths; Let’s set this straight!

1. Children with SPD are just being difficult. Wrong! These children are not trying to push buttons or demonstrate challenging behavior, they can’t help their body’s reactions to certain sensory stimuli. There are triggers that happen in your child’s environment that causes this type of reaction.

2. SPD is just another way to describe ADHD in your child. Wrong! These are two completely separate issues. I am not saying that your child cannot suffer from both, because he/she can, but they are two different diagnosis.

3. SPD is another form of autism. Wrong! The cause of SPD is still unknown. Children with autism may experience symptoms of SPD, but that doesn’t mean that every child experiencing signs and symptoms of SPD has autism. This is a similar myth to the one about ADHD. Children may experience both, but also may experience them separately.

 

What should you do if your child is experiencing signs and symptoms of SPD?

Make sure your child is accurately diagnosed by a medical professional. Once your child is diagnosed, obtain a referral for an Occupational Therapist so your child can receive intervention for SPD.  The Occupational Therapist will begin by performing standardized tests, as well as observation, to get a better understanding of your child’s everyday function.

If this is something you are comfortable with, allow your child to attend Occupational Therapy services 2-3x/wk.  Your child will have a created Sensory Diet, which is an individualized treatment plan to effectively treat your child’s specific sensory problems. The goal of this is to take the “problem” behaviors and replace them with more adaptive behaviors.

The Occupational Therapist will most likely perform Sensory Integration Therapy, which provides your child with the opportunity to have as many sensory experiences as possible in a safe environment. With the Occupational Therapist present, he/she will work and “play” with your child to regulate these sensory experiences to ensure a more appropriate response.

*Friendly reminder- Family collaboration is very important in treating a child with SPD. Don’t be afraid to become a part of therapeutic intervention as well as bring it into your home environment!

Don’t be discouraged; As a parent, you are not alone.

 

 

 

 

 

Impact and Treatment of SPD. (n.d.). Retrieved November 15, 2016, from https://www.spdstar.org/basic/impact-and-treatment-of-spd

Mailloux, Z., Mulligan, S., Roley, S. S., Blanche, E., Cermak, S., Coleman, G. G., et al. (2011). Verification and clarification of patterns of sensory integrative dysfunction. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 65, 143–151. doi: 10.5014/ajot.2011.000752

Ostovar, R., & Kranowitz, C. S. (2009). Ultimate guide to sensory processing disorder. Arlington, TX: Sensory World/Future Horizons.

Pérez Robles, R., Ballabriga, M., Diéguez, E., & Caldeira da Silva, P. (2012). Validating Regulatory Sensory Processing Disorders Using the Sensory Profile and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL 1½-5). Journal Of Child & Family Studies, 21(6), 906-916. doi:10.1007/s10826-011-9550-4

 

 

Facts About Scoliosis

What is Scoliosis?   scoliosis-with-labels

Curvature of the spine (also known as scoliosis) is the most common spine deformity. Your pediatrician, or even your child’s school nurse, may perform a scoliosis screening. It is important to ask your pediatrician about scoliosis early.

Your child’s school may provide free scoliosis screenings.

Worsening curvature during adolescent growth is a major concern. While in most cases scoliosis is painless, severe cases can cause other serious health complications. You may be at higher risk if someone in your family has scoliosis. If your pediatrician tells your child has scoliosis, you should ask your doctor to refer your family to a specialist called an orthopedist. Follow up with your doctor every 4-6 months.

Some of the most common signs of scoliosis are:

·         Uneven shoulders and waist line

·         Leaning to one side

·         Shoulder blades that stick out

·         Chronic back pain

·         Poor self-image

While there is no cure for scoliosis, there are several treatment options including exercise, bracing, and in severe cases, surgery. 

scoli-bracing
LaRusso, Laurie, MS, ELS. (2014).  Scoliosis—Child.  Conditions & procedures in brief. http://library.neit.edu:2216/chc/detail?sid=3f4801e3-aa63-4269-a632-75458403ace6%40sessionmgr4009&vid=7&hid=4201&bdata=JnNpdGU9Y2hjLWxpdmU%3d#AN=HL11573&db=cmh. Retrieved October 20, 2016
Massage and bodywork specialist, Erik Dalton reviews one way to treat someone with scoliosis.
The most common treatments for scoliosis is exercise and bracing. A brace can aid in preventing the spine from curving more, especially during adolescent growth. When coupled with bracing, the right exercises can help to lengthen, strengthen, and ultimately straighten your spine. Research shows the benefits of bracing, and how the right exercises will help to straighten your spine and decrease pain that may be associated with more severe cases of scoliosis.
JWA JUN, K., GUI BIN, S., & EUN CHO, P. (2015). Effects of Swiss ball exercise and resistance exercise on respiratory function and trunk control ability in patients with scoliosis. Journal Of Physical Therapy Science, 27(6), 1775-1778. Permalink: http://library.neit.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ccm&AN=108276345&site=ehost-live Retrieved Oct 12, 2016

WEISS, H; MORAMARCO, K; MORAMARCO, M. Scoliosis bracing and exercise for pain management in adults–a case report. Journal of Physical Therapy Science. 28, 8, 2404-2407, Aug. 2016. ISSN: 0915-5287. Permalink: http://library.neit.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ccm&AN=117888487&site=ehost-live Retrieved Oct 12, 2016

Confused about what types of exercises could improve your scoliosis? Check out this informative video.
 

 

See your child’s pediatrician and have your child screened for scoliosis. Ask your pediatrician to refer you to an orthopedist and follow up with them every 4-6 months.

 

Does Lack of Sleep Cause Behavior Problems in Children?

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What does Keiki have to say?

Behavioral Insomnia in Children

One of the most common complaints encountered when raising children, are sleep difficulties.   Fifteen to 30 percent of children are having problems either falling asleep or experiencing frequent waking throughout the night.  The article goes into detail about each of the possible disturbances.  These can include prolonged night waking secondary to children needing to fall asleep under certain conditions, as well as children protesting bedtime.  Suggestions on how to improve your child’s sleep habits were provided.  Sticking to routines and establishing set bedtimes were the most emphasized strategies.

This article seemed to be the most closely related to the media clips.  It really focused on the behavioral implications.  In all three of the media clips, they primarily focused more on how to get your child to bed at a reasonable time, as well as how to improve their sleep quality.  This article had multiple suggestions similar to the ones stated by Dr. Oz and the other professionals.  Routines and strict bedtimes were both highly stressed.

Nguyen, K., & Soultan, Z. (2015). Why Doesn’t My Child Sleep?”-Behavioral Insomnia in Children. New York Family Medicine News, 28-30.

 

How about America’s favorite doctor?

Relationship Between Children’s Sleep and Mental Health in Mothers of Children with and Without Autism
This study researched the correlation between mothers sleep patterns with those of their children. Two groups were researched. One group had children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, while the other was a typical group of children. Research suggests that rearing a child with developmental disabilities may negatively impact a parents’ mental health. This in turn could cause poor sleep patterns for the parent. If the parent is stressed and has lack of sleep, they can potentially hinder sleep in their own children, thus causing spikes in behavior. Mothers of children with ASDs reported more problems with their own sleep, greater stress, and poorer mental health; however, children’s sleep and maternal sleep were more closely related to maternal stress for mothers of typically developing children. This proves that the disability itself with ASD is what is causing the mothers symptoms, rather than solely the lack of sleep.

Hodge, D., Hoffman, C., Sweeney, D., & Riggs, M. (2013). Relationship Between Children’s Sleep and Mental Health in Mothers of Children with and Without Autism. Journal Of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 43(4), 956-963. doi:10.1007/s10803-012-1639-0

More from the Doc!

Waking Up to a Problem
This article focused on what could possibly happen when a child is sleep deprived. They tend to have behavior problems and frequent temper tantrums. They might be impulsive and have difficulty following directions. Many children resemble a child that might be diagnosed with ADHD. And many children, who actually are diagnosed with this disorder, suffer from an underlying sleep disorder. This would act as the primary problem. An interesting part of the article suggested that later start times in school shows improvements in grades. However, this is difficult to schedule due to sports conflicts and extracurricular activities. Recommendations were also provided. This included actual amounts of hours required for each age. Elementary age children should be getting around 11 hours of sleep while adolescents should be getting 9 hours. Decreasing screen times, as well as limiting caffeine were also some suggestions.

MITCHELL, K. (2016). Waking Up to a Problem. Businesswest, 32(20), 40.

What can happen if a child isn’t getting enough shut eye?

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  • Irritability
  • Poor school performance
  • Characteristics of ADHD (Attention-Hyperactivity Deficit Disorder)
  • Poor tolerance for change
  • Increased behavior problems
  • Depression
  • Obesity

Is your child getting enough sleep? Take the test

If you can answer yes to all of these questions, your child is getting enough sleep:

  • My child falls asleep in less than 20 to 30 minutes of bedtime.
  • My child wakes up easily in the morning, at the expected time.
  • My child appears well rested during the day.
  • My child stays awake without taking a nap during the day. (This question only applies to children that have outgrown their daytime nap.)
  • My child stays awake during quiet activities, such as driving in the car or watching television.

Symptoms of not enough sleep

If you or his teacher can answer yes to any of these questions, your child is not getting enough sleep.

  • My child has a hard time waking up in the morning.
  • My child falls asleep after being woken up and needs parents to wake again or repeatedly.
  • My child yawns frequently during the day.
  • My child complains of feeling tired.
  • My child prefers to lie down during the day, even if it means she’ll miss activities with friends and families.
  • My child wants to nap during the day.
  • My child lacks interest, motivation, and attention.
  • My child falls asleep or seems drowsy at school or at home during homework.

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What Can You Do?

1. Avoid feeding your child big meals close to bedtime, and don’t give her anything containing caffeine less than six hours before bedtime.

2. After dinner, avoid all stimulating activities, says Carol L. Rosen, M.D., medical director of pediatric sleep services at Case Western Reserve University’s School of Medicine at Rainbow Babies and Children’s Hospital in Cleveland.

3. Warn your child that bedtime is in five minutes, or give him a choice — “Do you want to go to bed now or in five minutes?” — but do this only once.

4. Establish a consistent and relaxing bedtime routine that lasts between 20 and 30 minutes and ends in your child’s bedroom. Avoid scary stories or TV shows. It’s better to read a favorite book every night than a new one because it’s familiar.

5. Avoid singing or rocking your child to sleep, because if she wakes in the middle of the night she may need you to sing or rock her back to sleep — a condition known as sleep-onset association disorder. (If you have already been doing this, try to phase this behavior out gradually.) Instead, have her get used to falling asleep with a transitional object, like a favorite blanket or stuffed animal.

6. Make sure your child is comfortable. Clothes and blankets should not restrict movement, and the bedroom temperature shouldn’t be too warm or too cold.

7. If your child calls for you after you’ve left his room, wait a few moments before responding. This will remind him that he should be asleep, and it’ll give him the chance to soothe himself and even fall back asleep while he is waiting for you.

8. If your child comes out of her room after you’ve put her to bed, walk her back and gently but firmly remind her that it’s bedtime.

9. Give your child tools to overcome his worries. These can include a flashlight, a spray bottle filled with “monster spray,” or a large stuffed animal to “protect” him.

10. Set up a reward system. Each night your child goes to bed on time and stays there all night, she gets a star. After three stars, give her a prize.

http://www.parents.com/kids/sleep/10-tips-for-helping-your-child-fall-asleep/

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