Diabetes- the difference.

“So I’ll wait ’til kingdom come, All the highs and lows are gone, a little bit longer and I’ll be fine, I’ll be fine”
– A Little Bit Longer, Jonas Brothers- 

This song was written by Nick Jonas. He was diagnosed with Type 1 Diabetes in 2005. This was actually the same year I was diagnosed as well. I myself have come to terms with being a diabetic and having to take insulin almost every time I eat. The one thing about it that gets really old really quick is the statement ” You don’t look like a Diabetic!” So in this blog I am going to do a little background on Type 1 diabetes and the difference between type 1 and type 2.

 

To start I am going to talk about the differences. Type 1 is when your pancreas produces little to no insulin. This makes all type 1 diabetics insulin dependent.  Type 2 is when your pancreas still produces normal levels of insulin, your body is just not able to absorb it. Type 2 diabetics can start on pill forms to help control their diabetes but then may needed insulin to help down the road.

As you can see there is a major difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Another major difference is that Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease whereas type 2 is a multifactorial one. This means that for type one the immune system has attacked the cells in the pancreas that make the insulin. So basically, there is a war going on in the body and the immune system thinks that it is doing the right thing but made it so the body can no longer produce the right amount of insulin. With type 2., there is still the production of insulin the body just decides that it no long knows what to do with it and becomes very resistant to it, like a child who doesn’t want to wear a coat even though their parent said they would need it.

Type 2 has many causes like obesity and the disease runs in the family. Type 2 is usually diagnosed after the age of 40. Type 1 however the cause if it is unknown and is usually diagnosed in childhood, which to me makes sense seeing as I am 1 of 5 kids and there is no family history of it that I know of. I know type 2 runs on my papas’ side of the family but he is in no blood relation to me and as you can tell type 1 and type 2 are a very different thing.

There are reasons on why everyone automatically assumes that all diabetics have type 2. That is because it is more widely talked about. This could also be that 95% of diabetics are type 2 and that means that only 5% of diabetics have type 1. Knowing this information makes me understand more where the statement “you don’t look like a diabetic” comes from and it also makes me want to educate more people about the difference more.

Iliades, C., Salomon, S. H., Upham, B., & Roan, S. (n.d.). What’s the Difference Between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes? Retrieved from https://www.everydayhealth.com/diabetes/difference-between-type-1-type-2-diabetes/.

Medical Providers. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.jchdonline.org/index.php/all-topics/49-programs-and-services/health-education/295-what-are-the-main-differences-between-type-i-and-type-ii-diabetes.

T1D Basics. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.jdrf.org/t1d-resources/about/.

Parkinson’s Disease: What is it and how is it managed?

“Parkinson’s Disease only effects my movement- I will know if I shake.” “You don’t look like you have parkinson’s, so you must feel fine!” “Only older men can get Parkinson’s Disease.” “My life is over because I have Parkinson’s Disease.”

These are just some of the many myths that exist about Parkinson’s Disease. Luckily, there are many videos, pictures, and articles that help to educate about the FACTS surrounding Parkinson’s Disease-starting here! 

So, what is Parkinson’s Disease?

The Clinical Pharmacist Journal, defines Parkinson’s Disease (PD) as a “chronic, progressive, neurodegnerative disease resulting from the loss of dopamine-containing cells.”

Who gets Parkinson’s Disease?

Anyone can be diagnosed with Parkinson’s Disease regardless of age, gender, or background. The Clinical Pharmacist Journal reported that although less likely, individuals aged 30-39 can be diagnosed with PD, as well as those aged 80-84, both male and female. This includes all of the ages between 30 and 84 as well. 

The video below provides further education regarding causes, symptoms, and treatment of Parkinson’s Disease, explained by a neurologist. 

Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease: 

By the time the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease require you to go to the doctor, there is a high chance that the non-motor symptoms have been present for much longer, but have gone unnoticed. 

Symptoms can vary from person-to-person, and can also be side effects of the type of medication one is taking to manage Parkinson’s Disease. 

Non-motor Symptoms:

  • Depression
  • Trouble with scent
  • Dysphagia (trouble swallowing)
  • Bladder dysfunction
  • Confusion
  • Constipation
  • Drooling
  • Dementia

Motor Symptoms:

  • Tremors
  • Postural Instability
  • Shuffling walking pattern
  • Bent over posture
  • Diminished facial expression
  • Drooping eyes

Above is a video, where the experience of Parkinson’s of a nurse diagnosed with the disease is described. 

How is it diagnosed?

The Hindawi Journal of Parkinson’s Disease reports that doctors will look at a combination of motor and non-motor symptoms that a patient is experiencing, as well as the presence of Lewy Bodies in the brain. In many cases these can be found through CT scans or MRIs. Your doctor will also look at both subjective (what you say), and objective (what you do) information. 

How can you manage your symptoms?

  • Pharmaceutical Medications
    • Levodopa: Gold standard of medication for PD
    • Dopamine Agonists: activates Dopamine Receptors
    • Ergo-derived Dopamine Agonists: additional medicine for individuals with PD who continue to have dyskinesia and motor impairments despite already taking Levodopa 
    • Non-oral Medication: Patch Therapy
  • Physical Exercise
  • Deep Brain Stimulation: surgical procedure involving the placement of a medical device referred to as a “brain pacemaker”

Please consult your doctor before adding or modifying medication

Type of Exercise that is Beneficial:

The video above provides some visuals of examples of exercise that are appropriate for an individual diagnosed with Parkinson’s Disease. 

The Hindawi Jounral of Parkinson’s Disease reported that in many studies, it has been shown that exercise has a positive effect on individuals with Parkinson’s Disease. 

In a small study, “regular exercise (>150 minutes/week), is associated with less progression of PD symptoms over one year, compared to those who exercise less or not at all (Heron, Mayol, Miller, Moore, Nicholos, Ragano 2019).”

In many cases, exercise is considered just as beneficial, if not more so than pharmaceutical treatment. It assists with maintaining the quality of life of an individual living with PD. Types of exercise that is beneficial to individuals with Parkinson’s Disease includes, but is not limited to:

      • Aerobic exercise-swimming, jogging, walking, etc.
      • Balance exercises-side stepping, single leg stand, etc.
      • Resistance training-TRX ropes, weights, machines
      • Flexibility training-stretching
      • BIG movements-An exercise program specifically designed for individuals with Parkinson’s Disease (see example below)

It is incredibly overwhelming to research about a topic such as Parkinson’s Disease. This is why it is so important to know what type of information is factual, and what is a myth. Consult with your doctor and loved ones before making any decisions regarding this diagnoses, to understand what will work for your body. 

References: 

Aube, B., & Cote, M., & Morin, N., & Di Paolo, T., & Poirier, A. A., & Soulet, D. (2016). Gastrointestinal Dysfunctions in Parkinson’s Disease: Symptoms and Treatments. Hindawi Jounral of Parkinson’s Disease, 2016. 1-23

Barnes, Janine. (2018). Parkinson’s Disease Management and guidance. Clinical Pharmacist, 10. (8). 237-242

Heron, A., & Mayol, M., & Miller S. A., & Moore, E. S., & Nicholos, V., & Ragano, B. (2019). Rate of Progression in Activity and Participation Outcomes in Exercisers with Parkinson’s Disease: A Five-Year Prospective Longitudinal Study. Hindawi Journal of Parkinson’s Disease, 2019. 1-9.

 

CBD The New Anti-inflammatory Go To!

By: Stephanie Riddell

There has been a clear shift towards seeking alternative more natural methods to manage chronic diseases, this has opened the door for products such as CDB to become more widely researched and utilized from managing various medical diagnosis. Although it is still fairly new and some consider it taboo, CBD continues to display benefits from many patients. In the united states chronic pain and autoimmune diseases have increased in prevalence leading to an increase in medication usage. CBD has shown to have positive effects on suppressing and eliminating inflammation in the body, making it effective in managing chronic pain, arthritis, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Anxiety, Insomnia, wounds, skin inflammatory diseases such as acne and psoriasis, multiple sclerosis, seizures and neuropathy. Using western medications for long periods of time to manage these conditions have provided to have detrimental side effects on your body, effecting your kidney, bowel functioning, cognition, energy and increasing addiction rates due to the use of opioids and none- steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSADs). CBD unlike marijuana has no psychoactive properties, therefore you do not experience a “high” from ingesting it. It is 100% legal in the United States, and is sourced from the hemp strain of cannabis.

What CBD can be used for
• Anxiety
• Seizures
• Wounds
• Arthritis
• Chronic pain
• Insomnia
• IBS
• Psoriasis & acne

Benefits of using CBD
• Not addictive
• Reduces inflammation
• Pain management agent
• No negative physical side effects on other organs
• Safe for use with animals

Methods of taking CBD
• Drops – oil
• Topical creams
• Edibles such as gummies
• Vapes
• Sprays
• Inhalers

Disadvantages
• Finding a reputable source to buy CBD
• Federal Employees are unable to use it due to legalities
• Not as heavily regulated as medications and other products on the market which can lead to false advertising and lower quality products

CBD has achieved a lot of spotlight with the use for seizure management and have allowed states to profit from the legalization of it and marijuana. Please consult with your health care Doctor and team if you choose to explore CBD for your alignments, and find a reputable source to purchase your products from.

By: Winston Peki

 

References:

Teitelbaum, J. A Hemp oil, CBD, and Marijuana Primer: Powerful Pain, Insomnia, and Anxiety-relieving Tools! Alternative Therapies, 25. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/anast/Documents/MSOT%20classes/English/artcile.pdf


Piermarini, C., & Viswanath, O. (2019, July 3). CBD as the New Medicine in the Pain Provider’s Armamentarium. Springer Link, 8, 157-158. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/anast/Documents/MSOT%20classes/English/cbd%20article.pdf

Inflammation and CBD Oil: Benefits, Effectiveness, and Dosage

 

 

Dangers Of Vaping

By: Vaping360

Every smokers and new smokers seems to be picking up the habit of vaping because of the claim that vaping is safe compared to smoking an actual cigarette. According to (Friedenberg, L, MA and Smith, A. G 2019) “Since e-cigarettes, vape pens, and other similar devices hit the U.S. market several years ago, their popularity has skyrocketed. (p.1)

What Are The Risk Factors Of Vaping?

New medical problems linked to vaping has been circulating the media recently. Due to those new medical problems, it is no longer considered safe to vape. According to Raloff (2015) Many teens who vaped started feeling dryness and itching in their throat. “Some said that vaping made them cough or choke and that their mouths bled.” (p.3)

There have also been several deaths of young teens who were known to vape on a regular basis. According to the U.S. health officials and the media, those deaths were caused by lung illnesses which were linked to vaping. There were more than 450 lung illnesses that were reported thought out several states in the U.S. in recent months (Cunningham, A 2019).

By: _nyem_

During a study that was conducted by Irina Petrache of the Indiana University in 2014, lab animals were intentionally given nicotine and e-cigarette liquids in order to research the end results of the exposure. The results caused increased oxidative stress and buildup inflammatory cells in the lungs of the animals. The inflammatory later affected the lungs. The study also suggested that once nicotine or acrolein liquids in e-cigarette are inhaled through vaping, they cause the cells of the lung to malfunction which makes the user sick. In The end, it was concluded that vaping is no less dangerous than smoking and that it is just as bad as smoking. (Raloff, J, 2015) (p.2).

References

CUNNINGHAM, A. (2019). Vaping suspected in six U.S. deaths. Science News196(6), 10. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=hxh&AN=138582228&site=ehost-live

Friedenberg, L., & Smith, G. A. (2017). Dangers of E-cigarettes and Liquid Nicotine Among Children. Pediatrics for Parents, 31, 22. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=122753671&site=ehost-live

E-cigarettes: Hazardous or helpful? Their efficacy as a tool for quitting regular cigarettes and their long-term safety remain concerning. (2019). Harvard Heart Letter, 29(12), 5. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ccm&AN=137713075&site=ehost-live

Raloff, J. (2015). The Dangers of Vaping: Teens are falling for flavored e‐cigs, but the vapors they inhale may be toxic. Science News, 188(1), 18–21. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eoah&AN=36223515&site=ehost-live

By: HRYMX

Is It Our Right Or Is It Murder?

Each and every individual has the right to autonomy. Autonomy is defined as the right to self-govern or in other words, to make your own decisions. We have the right to choose where we work, who we marry, which medical procedures we undergo, and in the end, we have the right to choose whether or not we are resuscitated if something were to happen to us. So why do we not have the right to choose when and how we die?

Death and dying have been the topic of discussion for years however only recently has that discussion shifted focus to how people are dying. Towards the end of life, people often find themselves facing the decision of continuing on with aggressive treatments to prolong what little life they have left, or opting for palliative care and simply waiting for the day where they pass. People are now looking towards physician assisted death as a means to end their pain and suffering and as a way to die with dignity. Physician assisted death is when a physician provides or administers a lethal medication to a requesting individual with the sole purpose of ending that individual’s life. Many people view physician assisted death as wrong however, it is our right.

Image result for physician assisted death ncbi

There are currently many treatment options available when it comes to end-of-life care. The first option is treatment based on the disease. For example, cancer patients have the option of chemotherapy, radiation, or surgery. When patients forgo these options, for one reason or another, they are forgoing one end-of-life treatment option available to them. Another option available is palliative care which can begin at the time of diagnosis and may occur at the same time as treatment. However, after treatment of the disease is stopped and it is unclear if the patient will survive, the patient must forgo palliative care and enter hospice care. During hospice care, opioids can manage pain, but cannot eliminate it all together. When opioids are insufficient and the suffering becomes unbearable, the patient is offered sedatives or other psychoactive medications in order to achieve complete unconsciousness until the patient dies, otherwise known as terminal sedation. If patients forgo all available options, depending on which state the patient lives in, a patient may opt for a fourth treatment option known as physician assisted suicide.

 As stated above, each and every individual has the right to autonomy and that autonomy should be respected up until the end of life. If an individual has deemed their suffering to be intolerable, and they are ready to say goodbye to their loved ones, they should be able to do so without having someone else force them to continue living in agony. Individuals often times choose physician assisted suicide as a way to prevent or escape further suffering or pain. We do not get to decide when an individual is done suffering and we certainly do not have the right to force individuals to continue suffering. 

Image result for physician assisted death ncbi

Individuals choose physician assisted suicide for many different reasons depending on the situation they are in.  A study conducted in 2017 showed that ninety-two percent of individuals choose physician assisted suicide because of the loss of autonomy while ninety percent stated they could no longer enjoy activities that made life worth living and seventy-eight percent perceived a loss of dignity. A book published in 2017 discusses palliative care options for terminal ill patients but also argues that palliative care may not be sufficient in alleviating one-hundred percent of patients’ pain and discomfort. When palliative care is no longer sufficient, individuals often chose to end the pain and suffering and lessen the burden on family members by opting for physician assisted suicide. A physician’s duty is to help relieve the suffering of individuals. By assisting in physician assisted suicide, physicians are committing an act of compassion and fulfilling their obligation of non abandonment. In other words, physicians are fulfilling their obligation to their patients by caring for them and respecting their wishes up until death. 

As physician assisted suicide becomes increasingly more popular as a treatment option for terminally ill patients, safeguards and policies must be put into practice to ensure individuals are not simply using is as a means to commit suicide due to depression. For example, the Oregon Death with Dignity Act has certain requirements that patients must meet before committing physician assisted suicide. This bill requires that patients must have a terminal illness with less than six months to live. In addition, they must receive a second opinion from another physician. The patient must also be informed of other options available such as hospice, palliative care, aggressive treatment, or deep sedation. Patients are required to make a written request along with a verbal request for physician assisted suicide and the physician must wait fifteen days after the request before providing the patient with the prescription. Lastly, the patient must be able to swallow the medication themselves or inject themselves with the medication. The physician or nurse may not administer the medication in order for it to be considered a physician assisted death.

The main reasons why people consider physician assisted suicide to be wrong include religious or moral beliefs. However, due to the many different religions in the world with varying beliefs, religion should play no part in medical decisions. There are many different reasons why individuals choose to end their pain and suffering but the important concept to remember is no matter the reason why, the intention is always the same: End the agony. People should respect others’ autonomy and their decision regarding end of life care. Physician assisted suicide should be implemented as a final treatment option for individuals with terminal illnesses.

References

Blanke, C., LeBlanc, M., Hershman, D., Ellis, L., & Meyskens, F. (2017). Characterizing 18 years of the Death With Dignity Act in Oregon. ​JAMA oncology, 3(10), 1403–1406. doi:10.1001/jamaoncol.2017.0243

Orentlicher, D., Pope, T. M., & Rich, B. A. (2016). Clinical criteria for physician aid in dying. Journal of palliative medicine ​ , ​19 ​ (3), 259–262. doi:10.1089/jpm.2015.0092

Simmons K. M. (2018). Suicide and death with dignity. ​Journal of law and the biosciences ​ , ​5 ​ (2), 436–439. doi:10.1093/jlb/lsy008

Sulmasy, L. S., & Mueller, P. S. (2017). Ethics and the legalization of physician-assisted suicide: An American College of Physicians position paper. ​Annals of internal medicine, ​ ​167 ​ (8), 576. doi:10.7326/m17-0938

Sumner, L. W. (2017). ​Physician-assisted death: What everyone needs to know ​ . New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

CBD

CB – Do’s and Dont’s

 

By: Trending Topics 2019

 

What is CBD?

Cannabidiol, aka CBD is the second most abundant cannabinoid in the marijuana plant, but let’s take a step back and start with the basics. Marijuana, hemp, ganja, grass, bud, weed, good old Mary Jane; the stuff that your grandparents hate and everyone at The Grateful Dead concert loves. As more and more states decriminalize and recreationally legalize marijuana, the more it becomes apart of our every day lives. Growing up being force fed lies about the “devils lettuce” and all its gateway drug horrors, it’s hard to flip the switch and accept it as God’s gift to the world; but if we take a second and look at marijuana with some logic, you can really open your third eye. Looking at marijuana from a chemical standpoint looks like something out of a Syfy movie, but all you really need to know is that the plant has two main chemical compounds called cannabinoids. Cannabinoids get their fancy name due to the fact that they react with our bodies’ Cannabinoid receptors found in our brains and immune systems. The two main cannabinoids affecting the body when using marijuana are tetrahydrocannabinol, also known as THC, also known as the stuff that gets you high; the other is our good old friend CBD. Its in the news, its in the papers, its all over the internet, CBD is the world’s latest and greatest miracle drug. But before you wipe out that sketchy gas station around the corner of all it’s “CBD gummy bears”, lets dig a little deeper to the roots of this psychoactive plant.

By: Winston Peki

Myths about CBD

“CBD will get me high” myth

CBD does interact with the cannabinoid receptors of the brain, but not in the same psychoactive manner that THC does.

“CBD will make me fail a drug test” myth

CBD isn’t what drug tests test for, drug tests test for THC because that’s the part that gets you high. If it isn’t getting you stoned, why bother testing for it?

“CBD is illegal” myth

CBD is federally legal, as long as it contains less than 0.3% THC. Some states have stricter laws than others when it comes to marijuana, for example in Virginia CBD requires a medical prescription. But at the end of the day CBD is legal for the same reasons it won’t make you fail a drug test.

“CBD is addictive” myth

As controversial as it is, its generally accepted that marijuana in itself is nonaddictive. I mean, if the part of weed that gets you stoned isn’t addictive, the rest of it most certainly isn’t.

“CBD cures all” myth

Every day the laundry list of medical benefits of CBD gets longer and longer, but one article will tell you CBD is the perfect cure for insomnia, while the next will tell you it’s the perfect subconscious stimulator to keep you up at night to, say I don’t know, stay up and write a blog about CBD. Let’s take a look at the real benefits of CBD.

By: Winston Peki

Benefits of CBD

Across the globe CBD is becoming more and more evident as a medical marvel, for example the United Kingdom just upped CBD from its list of nutritional supplements to a medicine. But don’t let this make you stop at every CBD mall kiosk for their caramel pomegranate hemp hand lotion. Here’s what will actually change if you use CBD

  • Relives chronic pain or joint/muscle inflammation
  • Stress relief
  • Reduces nausea
  • Improves sleep
  • Treats epilepsy and seizures
  • Calms anxiety, depression and other acute mental disorders
  • Aids the body in fighting several drug resistant bacteria
  • Topical use aids in treating of skin ailments, rashes and acne

What to watch for

Essentially, don’t buy into everything you read on the internet. CBD won’t cure your transient idiopathic arrythmia or your moderate to severe chronic plaque psoriasis, but that doesn’t mean it won’t help! Just because you saw on the 6 o’clock news that a mom from the next state over stops her son’s seizures with CBD oil, doesn’t mean you should use CBD on its own to cure that rash you’ve had for a few months. CBD has lots of medical benefits, and countless more that are undiscovered, but leave the discovering to the scientists running the clinicals.

On a daily basis CBD and marijuana in general is found to have more and more benefits. But just like any other good thing, for every person doing the right thing, there’s ten other guys undercutting the real deal for a rip off, to only gain profit. CBD when used in the right dosages, and for a long enough period of time can really show a lot of medical benefits. But that doesn’t mean you should trust everything you see in the window of the smoke shop. When you shop cheap online, or buy CBD from the corner store, you probably aren’t going to see any results. More often than not, what you’re getting isn’t even real CBD, usually it’s vegetable oil with a little bit of artificial flavoring. Proceed with caution when buying that CBD Juul pod from the gas station because 9 times out of 10 these CBD gimmicks aren’t FDA regulated, or regulated at all. When it comes to the stuff your putting in your body, you want it to be as safe as possible, especially when trying to combat another ailment. Using these imported knock offs probably won’t help your cause, and can open another medicinal can of worms that you really don’t want to, so if CBD really is the cure for you go see a doctor or professional that can point you in the right direction.

As much as we want it to be, CBD isn’t the cure all miracle drug, but it has the potential to be life changing for a lot of people, so commit to a trail, let the CBD run its course. And if all else fails, smoke a bone.

References

Goldenberg, (2019). Introduction to CBD. Journal of Continuing Education Topics & Topics, 21 (3), 58-62. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ccm&AN=139253814&site=ehost-live

Teitelbaum, (2019). A Hemp Oil, CBD, and Marijuana Primer: Powerful Pain, Insomnia, and Anxiety-relieving Tools! Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 25(S2), 21-23. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=cmedm&AN=3120220&site=ehost-live

Welty, Luebke & Gidal, (2014). Cannabidiol: Promise and Pitfalls. Epilepsy Currents, 14(5), 250-252. https://doi.org/10.5698/1535-7597-14.5.250

 

 

Fact: There Is Hope

Depression symptoms can vary from mild to severe causing different degrees of sadness, lack of energy, feelings of worthlessness, isolation and lack of desire to enjoy everyday life. Depression is a major concern and projected to be the number one cause of global burden by the year 2030 (Greeson, Smoski, Suarez, Brantley, Lynch & Wolever, 2016). Conventional medicine uses a combinations of treatment that include antidepressant medication and psychotherapy however a less conventional way of dealing with depression has become more and more common in recent time. Meditation, has proven to be effective in helping with symptoms of depression study after study. Not only has it helped with the symptoms, but people have reported increased feelings of connection and spiritual experience. Spiritual experiences are experiences of connection with the transcendent in daily life (Koenig, Pearce, Nelson & Erkanli, 2016) leading to an improved more fulfilling life. So, what is meditation? Meditation is a mental training capable of producing connections between the mind, body and spirit. Research shows meditation helps people achieve balance, relaxation and self-control, in addition to the development of consciousness (Sampaio, Lima, Ladeia, 2016). Once you have experienced the amazing feeling of connection, you will want to connect more and more.

In the video below you will find Dr. Lisa Miller, who has a background in psychology and neuroscience explaining her own story with depression and spiritual experience which she describes as two sides of one door.

References

Greeson, J. M., Smoski, M. J., Suarez, E. C., Brantley, J. G., Ekblad, A. G., Lynch, T. R., & Wolever, R. Q. (2015). Decreased Symptoms of Depression After Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction: Potential Moderating Effects of Religiosity, Spirituality, Trait Mindfulness, Sex, and Age. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 21(3), 166–174. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2014.0285

Koenig, H., Pearce, M., Nelson, B., & Erkanli, A. (2016). Effects on Daily Spiritual Experiences of Religious Versus Conventional Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depression. Journal of Religion & Health, 55(5), 1763–1777. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-016-0270-3

Sanchez Sampaio, C. V., Garcia Lima, M., & Ladeia, L. A. (2016). Meditation, Health and Scientific Investigations: Review of the Literature. Journal of Religion & Health, 411-427. doi:10.1007/s10943-016-0211-1

The Physical and Mental Health Benefits of Traveling

Photo by Priscilla Du Preez on Unsplash

Traveling is something that many people like to do or dream of doing, but don’t take it into action for a number of different reasons such as lack of money, job responsibilities, home/family responsibilities, etc. Perhaps if more people were aware of the physical, mental health and social benefits of traveling abroad, they would also make traveling one of their priorities. Let’s discuss the overall health benefits that according to scientific research happen when we travel more…

The most well-known benefits of traveling seem to be benefits to human’s mental health. One of the ways that traveling benefits mental health is that it broadens people’s perspectives, people’s views of the world, and eliminates narrow mindedness by pushing people out of their comfort zones and making them embrace the unfamiliar. Traveling also forces people to communicate, navigate and learn about other cultures. Traveling increases cognitive stimulation and enhances people’s creativity when they immerse themselves in new and unfamiliar places, sights and sounds. According to Kristen Fuller, a physician and mental health writer for Center for Discovery, changing ones environment causes new neuronal pathways to form, enhancing creativity (Fuller, 2018). According to Dr. Paul Nussbaum, Ph.D., ABPP, president and founder of the Brain Health Center, Inc., “Because it challenges the brain with new and different experiences and environments, travel is an important behavior that promotes brain health and builds brain resilience across the lifespan” (Global, 2018). Traveling also provides stress relief and allows people to focus on the present moment by resetting their minds and forgetting about their chores, work and responsibilities (Fuller, 2018). After being on vacation for only a day or two, 89 percent of people are able to leave the stressors of work behind and relax.  This has long-term effects, as stress has been shown to play a damaging role in health and can actually speed up the aging process (Global, 2018).

Photo by Element5 Digital on Unsplash

Traveling also increases people’s happiness by boosting their mood before, during and after the trip. According to a study by the University of Surrey, people are at their happiest when they have a vacation planned, they are more positive about their health, economic situation and general quality of life (Fuller, 2018). Another study by Cornell University found that people find more happiness from anticipating a travel experience in comparison to anticipating buying a new possession (Fuller, 2018). A survey by the US Travel Association found that traveling can strengthen relationships by sharing travel experiences and working together through mishaps (Fuller, 2018). In an article on the mental benefits of vacationing somewhere new, the authors discuss that traveling “enhances emotional agility, or the ability to not react immediately to emotions, but to observe those that arise, carefully collect information to understand the possible causes, then intentionally decide how to manage them” (Kashdan, Achor, Gielan, O’Brien, Kolb & Brady, 2018). The second benefit mentioned in this article is empathy, which according to studies, people who travel more are able to show a greater tolerance and trust toward strangers, greater ability to suspend judgment, and become more appreciative of people (Kashdan, Achor, Gielan, O’Brien, Kolb & Brady, 2018). Other interesting benefits of traveling found in literature reviews of research studies state that time allotted for family bonding is decreasing, likely attributed to increased career demands and changing family structures. Several studies showed travel as a means to improve communications within a relationship, reduce the possibility of divorce, strengthen lifelong family bonds and increase a sense of well-being in adults and children (Durko & Petrick, 2016).Photo by Frank Vex on Unsplash

As with mental health, there are also physical health benefits of traveling. These benefits have a lot to do with the physical activities most commonly associated with traveling. A study by the Global Coalition of Aging on the physical, cognitive and social benefits of travel found that travel provides a path to a healthy aging process. The article states that “women who vacationed every six years or less had a significantly higher risk of developing a heart attack or coronary death compared to women who vacationed at least twice a year” (Global, 2018) as well as “men who did not take an annual vacation had a 20 percent higher risk of death and 30 percent greater risk of death from heart disease” (Global, 2018). Traveling involves plenty of physical activity, and according to a collective article by Transamerica Center for Retirement Studies and US Travel Association “Older adults who are physically active have lower rates of heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke, diabetes, cancers, lower risk of falling, and better cognitive function” (Global, 2018). Some of the mental health benefits of travel go hand in hand with the physical health benefits, and a perfect example of this is the “stress relief” benefit and stress has been linked to having damaging effects on physical health. The same collective article mentioned above states that “after being on vacation for only a day or two, 89 percent of people are able to leave the stressors of work behind and relax. This has long-term effects, as stress has been shown to play a damaging role in health and can actually speed up the aging process” (Global, 2018).

Photo by Capturing the human heart. on UnsplasPhoto by Capturing the human heart. on Unsplash

After learning about all the physical, mental and social benefits of traveling, it is safe to say that we should start thinking of travel less like a luxury and more like a necessity for optimal health.Photo by Caroline Selfors on Unsplash

 

References:

  1. Kashdan, T. B., Achor, S., Gielan, M., O’Brien, E., Kolb, D. M., & Brady, S. M. (2018, May 21). The mental benefits of vacationing somewhere new. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2018/01/the-mental-benefits-of-vacationing-somewhere-new
  2. Global Coalition on Aging. (2018, July). Destination Healthy Aging: The physical, cognitive and social benefits of travel. Retrieved November 10, 2019, from https://globalcoalitiononaging.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/destination-healthy-   aging-white-paper_final-web.pdf
  3. Durko, A., & Petrick, J. (2016). The benefits of travel: Family and relationships review of literature. Travel and Tourism Research Association: Advancing Tourism Research Globally. 16 https://scholarworks.umass.edu/ttra/2013/AcademicPapers_Oral/16
  4. Fuller, K. (2018, November 27). Six ways traveling can boost your mental health. Retrieved November 10, 2019, from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/happiness-is-state-        mind/201811/six-ways-traveling-can-boost-your-mental-health

THE VAPING EFFECT

By: Vaping360

Vaping has grown in popularity over the years and is done with the use of e-cigarettes. E-cigarettes were first introduced as an alternate nicotine delivery device in 2007 in the United States. Today, e-cigarettes are sold online and in stores, with a global market worth approximately $6 billion.

What is Vaping?

Vaping is the inhalation and exhalation of vapor produced by products used in an electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). E-cigarettes heat the liquid/ cartridges to produce an aerosol that the user inhales into his or her lungs. The cartridges that are vaporized often contains nicotine (impacts addiction), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinoid oils (CBD) and other additives. The e-cigarettes are available in hundreds of different flavors, many shapes and sizes to include those that look like regular cigarettes, pens, USB flash drives and everyday items.

  By: Sarah Johnson
By: Lindsay Fox

Claims

It is reported that e-cigarettes are marketed as a smoking cessation product. No government agency has endorsed this claim. The World Health Organization (WHO), stated that due to inconclusive evidence, it is not concluded that vaping aids in smoking cessation. Additionally, there are claims of vaping being a safer alternative to smoking due to e-cigarettes exposing users to less harmful chemicals than burned cigarettes. However, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) states that “the use of any tobacco product, including e-cigarettes, is unsafe for young people.”

By: Vaping360
By: Ninian Reid

What are the Experts Saying?

There are many unknowns of the chemicals that are included in vaping products, and this unknown brings uncertainty of the long-term effects of vaping in the coming years. According to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), due to the unknown risks and benefits, the use of e-cigarettes remains controversial. Currently, due to vaping-related illnesses and deaths, organizations such as the CDC, are urging individuals to refrain from vaping while investigations are conducted to determine the cause of incidences and to determine the safety of the various substances used in vaping products.

Health Risks

As of November 5, 2019, the CDC reported 2051 cases of lung-related illnesses (163 more than the previous week), as well as 39 confirmed deaths. The exact cause of the illnesses and deaths are unknown, but the common factor in all the reported cases is vaping.
Some symptoms associated with vaping includes:

• Cough
• Trouble breathing
• Chest pain
• Nausea
• Vomiting
• Diarrhea
• Fatigue
• Fever
• Weight loss
• Lung-related illness
• Heart-related complications
• Death

Teen Use

It has become a major concern of the increase statistics of teens who vape. It is reported that e-cigarettes are marketed to attract non-smokers and teenagers, primarily through the flavored options of the liquid products that are used in the e-cigarettes. Flavors such as bubblegum, vanilla, strawberry among others, makes the product more tolerable and enjoyable. Nicotine is found in most e-cigarettes and with the added flavors, makes vaping much more addicting. The impact of nicotine can be harmful on brain development which continues up to age 25 years. According to the CDC, 24 years is the median age of vapors, with a reported age range between the ages of 13 and 75 years. A National Youth Tobacco Study conducted by the American Cancer Society, reported that more than 3.6 million middle and high school students vape.

By: Sarah Johnson

Vaping Ban

Due to increase in vaping related illnesses and deaths many concerns have been raised including the lack of regulations regarding vaping. In a peer reviewed article titled “450 Vaping-related Illnesses, 5 Deaths: No You Don’t Know What’s in Your Vape,” the author stated that in August 2019, Michigan became the first state to ban flavored-e-cigarette liquids and products. Additionally, he stated that the FDA gave a deadline of May 2020 for e-cigarette manufacturers to submit their product for FDA review (Fratantoro, 2019). Additionally, more states such as: New York, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Montana, Washington, Oregon and California, have implemented ban on sale of vaping products due to the increase in vaping related illnesses and deaths.

By: James Dunworth

Recommendations

CDC recommends:
• Do not use e-cigarettes or vaping products containing THC
• Do not modify or add any substances to vaping products
• E-cigarettes or vaping products should not be used by youths, young adults and women who are pregnant.
• Adults addicted to nicotine who currently vape, should weigh all the risks and benefits and consider using FDA approved nicotine replacement therapies: Over the counter (patch, gum, lozenge), Prescription (inhaler, nasal spray).
• If you continue to vape, carefully monitor yourself for symptoms and seek medical attention immediately if severe symptoms occur.

Organizations such as the American Medical Association (AMA) recommends that until health officials can investigate and pinpoint the cause of vaping-related illnesses and deaths, “all Americans should avoid using vapes.”

 

By: Army Medicine

Resources

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/basic_information/e-cigarettes/index.htm
  • Centers for Disease Control and Preventionhttps://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/basic_information/e-cigarettes/severe-lung-disease.html
  • Fratantoro, M. (2019). 450 Vaping-related Illnesses, 5 Deaths: No, You Don’t Know What’s in Your Vape. RT: The Journal for Respiratory Care Practitioners, 4. Retrieved from http://library.neit.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ccm&AN=139284585&site=ehost-live
  • Merianos, A. L., Gittens, O. E., & Mahabee-Gittens, E. M. (2016). Depiction of health effects of electronic cigarettes on YouTube. Journal of Substance Use, 21(6), 614–619. https://doi.org/10.3109/14659891.2015.1118565
  • Time USA https://time.com/5685936/state-vaping-bans/
  • World Health Organization https://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/92/12/14-031214/en/

The Benefits of Exercise for Children with Disabilities

The Centers for Disease Control has found children with disabilities have a 38% higher risk of obesity than children without disabilities (Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, 2011).

Why is physical activity important?

Physical activity is a vital and necessary part of life for people of all ages. It is especially important for children with disabilities. Studies have shown participation in physical activity improves physical and mental health, along with promoting inclusion with peers.

Improvements in Overall Physical Health

  • Weight Loss
  • Increased Strength and Cardiovascular Endurance
  • Improved Flexibility, Balance and Agility
  • Reduced Risk of Developing Further Medical Conditions

Inclusion with Peers

  • Improved Social Skills
  • New Friendships
  • Teaches Competitiveness and Teamwork Skills

Mental Health Benefits

  • Increased Self-Confidence
  • Promotes Independence
  • Reduced Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression
  • Achievement of Goals

Physical activity provides many benefits for children with disabilities. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recommendation for physical activity is at least 60 minutes daily of moderate to vigorous intensity for all children (Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, 2011). The significant physical and psychosocial benefits activity can have on a child with disabilities can range from improved motor coordination and weight loss to increased self-esteem and decreased risk of depression. Participation in physical activity has also been shown to have an influence on a child’s social skills. These benefits all have the possibility to have a drastic impact on the life of a child with disabilities.

 

References

Geslak, D. S. (2016). Exercise, Autism, and new possibilities. Palaestra30(2), 32–36. Retrieved fromhttp://library.neit.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ccm&AN=116184585&site=ehost-live

Menear, K. S., & Shapiro, D. R. (2004). Let’s get moving! Physical activity and students with physical disabilities. Physical Disabilities: Education and Related Services23(1), 9–18. Retrieved from http://library.neit.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ842011&site=ehost-live

Murphy, N. A., Carbone, P. S., & Council on Children with Disabilities. (2008). Promoting the participation of children with disabilities in sports, recreation, and physical activities. American Academy of Pediatrics, 121(5). doi:10.1542/peds.2008-0566

Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (ED). (2011). Creating equal opportunities for children and youth with disabilities to participate in physical education and extracurricular athletics. Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, US Department of Education. Retrieved from http://library.neit.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=ED524248&site=ehost-live