Hospital acquired infection

What is an Hospital Acquired Infection?

A Hospital Acquired Infection is an infection that a patient receives in the hospital during their stay. It can happen after surgery by getting and infection in the surgical incision, pneumonia, MRSA and or C-DIFF for example. “health care–associated infections, 1 in 25 patients in the acute care setting will develop a health care–associated infection during their hospital stay. In 2011, roughly 722 000 patients had a hospital acquired infection and around 75 000 of those patients died” (Haversack, 2017).


What can a Hospital Acquired Infection lead too?

If a patient develops a hospital acquired infection it can lead to a longer hospital stay, health complications and may lead to death. Education on how to prevent hospital acquired infection should be taught to all patients. The more knowledge we know the less chance a patient will develop a hospital acquired infection.



How to prevent Hospital Acquired Infections?

The best way to prevent the spread of germs is hand washing.

How to properly wash your hands

  1. Turn on water and wet hands.
  2. Add a coin size amount of soap
  3. Scrub hands together for 20 seconds, or sing happy birthday twice.
  4. Since hands from wrist to finger tips.
  5. Dry hands with paper towel.
  6. Grab new paper towel and shut off sink.

When should we wash our hands?

“Hand decontamination should take place before and after patient contact, after contact with the patient’s environment or body fluids, when hands are visibly soiled, before and after an aseptic procedure and after removing gloves” (Rigby,2017).

  • Before, during, and after preparing food
  • Before eating food
  • Before and after caring for someone who is sick
  • Before and after treating a cut or wound
  • After using the toilet
  • After blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing
  • After touching an animal, animal feed, or animal waste
  • After touching garbage
  • Decontaminated hands


 Reasons for Poor Hand Hygiene 

  • Ineffective placements of dispensers or sinks
  • Hand hygiene isn’t stressed
  • Ineffective of insufficient education on hand washing
  • Health professionals carrying supplies and having their hands full
  • Wearing gloves
  • Thinking hand hygiene isn’t needed if they are wearing gloves
  • Health professionals forget to wash their hands
  • Distractions happen during the hand hygiene process


To prevent the spread of germs to patient to patient we in healthcare need to wash our hands and we need to continuously educate our patients and other staff members of the importance of hand hygiene. Washing your hands will save lives 


Haverstick, S. (2017). Patients’ Hand Washing and Reducing Hospital-Acquired Infection. Critical Care Nurse37(3), e1-e8. doi:10.4037/ccn2017694

Karsh, J. A. (2017). Hand Hygiene Do’s & Don’ts. H&HN: Hospitals & Health Networks91(5), 39-42.

Rigby, R., Pegram, A., & Woodward, S. (2017). Hand decontamination in clinical practice: a review of the evidence. British Journal Of Nursing26(8), 448-451.


Type 2 Diabetes

The Truth about Type 2 Diabetes


By: Agência Brasil Fotografias


Type 2 diabetes is also known as non-insulin dependent diabetes. It can sometimes be managed with a healthy diet and exercise. It is known to appear in adulthood however can affect children especially if they are obese.

Those with diabetes may not produce enough insulin or may have an insulin resistance. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that help the body bring sugar from the blood into the cells as a source of energy.

The goal of treatment is to maintain blood sugar levels, prevent complications and to control symptoms


By: Matthew Hutchinson


The recommended diet for those with this diagnosis is:


  • Limit refined sugars like the sugar in candy or soda
  • Limit salt in diet
  • Limit fat
  • Drink alcohol in moderation
  • Focus on eating starches, vegetables, fruit and proteins low in fat

It is important to manage blood sugar levels because with increased sugar in the blood it puts a person at risk for heart disease, kidney disease and vision loss.


Some Important Facts About Type 2 Diabetes:

With a lack of insulin there is excess sugar in the blood which acts like glass shards tearing at the arteries lining. This causes scarring and a smaller passageway for blood to pass (Arthrosclerosis).
• Excess sugar and atherosclerosis increases the risk for heart attack and heart disease
• Because it is so easy for the sugar to damage arteries in the kidneys there is an increased risk for kidney disease



Debunking the myths:


All those diagnosed with type 2 are overweight.

FALSE But it is more likely.

• You cannot eat any carbs.

FALSE carbs should be limited but can be eaten.

• Food that is labeled “Diabetic” can be eaten as much as you want.

FALSE They can be high in sorbitol and fructose.

• You will know if you have type 2 diabetes.

FALSE Type 2 diabetes is often described as insidious and many are not aware of their symptoms. It is type 1 diabetes where people are more symptomatic



The most reliable sources state that the risk for type 2 is higher when the person is overweight but not always because diet and insulin production vary in every person.



Because carbs can be a source or energy it is not recommended to eat 0 carbs, but to limit them as explained in the video below





Mathews, M. J., Liebenberg, L., & Mathews, E. H. (2015). How do high glycemic load diets influence coronary heart disease?. Nutrition & Metabolism, 12(1), 1-15. doi:10.1186/s12986-015-0001-x
Nazarko, L. (2010). Treatment of type 2 diabetes. British Journal Of Healthcare Assistants, 4(3), 124-1
Mellor, D. (2012). A review of the current nutritional guidelines for diabetes. Practice Nursing, 23(5), 234-240.

Newborn Care

Newborn Needs    

  • Newborn Hygiene. 
  • Skin Care.
  • Feeding and weight gain.
  • Skin to Skin (Kangaroo Care).
  • Warning Signs for Parents.



Newborn Hygiene

Umbilical Care:

  1. Use gentle soap.
  2. Use of 70% alcohol or 0.5% alcoholic chlorhexidine after bathing and diaper changes.
  3. Give sponge baths until the stump separates.
  4. Notify pediatrician if there is any redness or drainage.
  5. The World Health Organization recommends that the “stump be clean and dry”.

Skin Care:

  1. Wash your hands before bathing or changing baby.
  2. Bath baby in a warm room, either in a tub or bath.
  3. Temperature of the bath water should not go over 37°C.
  4. Poop should be cleaned off baby’s skin before bath.
  5. Use low level of water, aids drop in body temperature.
  6. Gently dry, use a soft towel to avoid friction.

Feeding & Weight Gain

  1. Feed every 2-3 hours.
  2. Good intake measured by: Bowel movements.
  3. Skin to skin contact with feeding.
  4. Weight Gain:
    1. First few days of life: weight loss occurs.
    2. Newborn gains weight back and gains some and grows.
    3. Call Pediatrician if:
      • Not regaining weight.
      • Less than 5 wet diapers/day.
      • Strong smelling urine for 5 days.
      • Less than 2 soft/loose mustard-yellow stools/day in 1st week.

Skin to Skin (Kangaroo Care)

  • Increases oxytocin hormone release.
  • Helps with newborn stress, temperature, breathing, heart rate, and pain.
    1. Reduces stress.
    2. Relieves pain.
    3. Elevates temperature, regulating it.
    4. Regulates heart rate thus controlling breathing.
  • Prevents heat loss.
  • Increases breastfeeding performance.
  • Helps with sleeping.

Newborn Warning Signs

  1. Fever: > 38.0C notify Pediatrician.
  2. Jaundice:
    • First few days of life normal, if continues call MD.
  3. Non-stop crying.
  4. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS):
    • Newborn needs to sleep on back ONLY!

Heart Failure Facts

By: Sharon Sinclair

The term “heart failure” makes it sound like the heart is no longer working at all. The fact is, in heart failure, the heart isn’t pumping as well as it should be, preventing the heart from keeping up with its workload.

Your body depends on the heart’s pumping action to deliver oxygen and nutrient-rich blood to the body’s cells. When the cells are nourished properly, the body can function normally.

With heart failure, the weakened heart can’t supply the cells with enough blood. This results in fatigue and shortness of breath and some people have coughing.

Can Heart Failure Occur in Postpartum? 

The claims made about heart failure in the media are often surprising, like the claim that heart failure can develop during or in the months following pregnancy, especially in news sources like the Donner County Daily Bee. In the January 18, 2018, the online edition of the Bee included an article claiming that women pregnant women were most likely to develop heart failure in the weeks following the delivery. The article revealed that symptoms of heart failure in this case are manifested by a chronic cough, especially when prone as well as exhaustion, dizziness and pains in the chest (“For Pregnant, 2018).

This news source was right on target as far as facts go because the information was derived from the results of a recently published study by Mogos, Piano, McFarlin, Salemi, Liese and Briller (2018). The study was predicated on the fact that, while heart failure has long-been identified as a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality, little evidence exists on the prevalence, correlates and outcomes of heart failure before, during and after delivery. FACT: In this case, Mogos et al. (2018) established that 60% of heart failure cases associated with pregnancy developed post-partum and in many cases as much as six weeks after delivery (p. e004005).

Can Smoke-inhalation be a Cause of Heart Failure?

A clip from Dr. Oz’s Inside Edition on February 6, 2018 included a comment on a recent episode from the popular TV show “This is Us,” suggesting that the death of main character Jack Pearson could be explained by a heart attack that he suffered because of trying to rescue his family from their burning house. The comment was based on research conducted by the Environmental Protection Agency, which reported that fine particulate matter like that found in smoke can get deep into the lungs and ultimately into the bloodstream and cause a non-fatal heart attack (“Heart”).

In the case of character Jack Pearson, the clip suggests that he apparently died from a heart attack. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis of studies on the subject confirmed that the short-term exposure to and inhalation of fine particulate matter like smoke can cause a myocardial infarction. FACT: Although the researchers do not mention heart failure, the contribution of inhaled smoke to chronic heart failure could be inferred because heart attack and other cardiac events can weaken the heart and cause heart failure (Luo, Zhu, Yao, Hou, Zhang, Cao, & Wang, 2015; “Heart Failure”).

Can Lifestyle Changes Improve Heart Failure?

Heart failure is a chronic disease needing lifelong management. However, with treatment, signs and symptoms of heart failure can improve, and the heart sometimes becomes stronger. Treatment may help you live longer and reduce your chance of dying suddenly.

Fact: Lifestyle changes often improve or control some of the factors contributing to heart failure.



For pregnant women, heart failure most likely in weeks after
delivery. (2018, Jan. 12). Bonner County Daily Bee. Retrieved from

Health and environmental effects of particulate matter. EPA.
Retrieved from

Luo, C., Zhu, X., Yao, C., Hou, L., Zhang, J., Cao, J., & Wang,
A. (2015). Short-term exposure to particulate air pollution and risk of myocardial infarction: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Environmental Science & Pollution Research, 22(19), 14651-14662

Mogos, M. F., Piano, M. R., McFarlin, B. L., Salemi, J. L.,
Liese, K. L., & Briller, J. E. (2018). Heart failure in pregnant women: A concern across the pregnancy continuum. Circulation: Heart Failure, 11(1), e004005.