The reactive behavior of an individual affected by sensory processing disorder (SPD) can be very puzzling to an outside observer. However, a simple explanation of sensory processing can change the perception of behaviors so they no longer seem out of place.
What is sensory processing? Sensory processing is the brain’s organization of sensory messages from inside oneself as well as through interaction with the environment. These include messages from the well-known senses: touch, taste, smell, sound, and sight; in addition to less known, but equally important, senses of movement, balance, and body awareness (Wheble & Hong, 2006).
Why is sensory processing important? Meaningful interactions within the environment are essential for successful functioning in everyday activities.
What is sensory processing disorder? Sensory processing disorder (SPD) refer to the inability of the brain to effectively process sensory information. An individual may have difficulty recognizing the presence of sensory information, or in contrast have difficulty ignoring the presence of sensory information (Sweet, 2010, p.2).
Margarita Sweet is an Occupational Therapist who works with children with sensory processing dysfunction also known as sensory processing disorder (SPD) or sensory integration dysfunction. She described the effects of SPD on a child’s ability to function during everyday activities, such as focusing in school or playing on the playground (Sweet, 2010, p.2).
Classroom success relies on integration of important sensory information such as the sound of the teacher’s voice and the visual information the teacher posts on walls or boards. In contrast, extraneous, possibly distracting sensory information include the feeling of hard, cold seats and desks, the sounds of fidgety peers and hums of fluorescent lights, and colorful, cluttered classroom walls and bookshelves. For a child with SPD, they may feel so uncomfortable or distracted by their inability to ignore extraneous sensory information that they are unable to participate and meet typical classroom expectations.
What does sensory processing feel like?
Hear the Point of View of a Child with Sensory Processing Disorder
In the above video, a boy with Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD) describes experiencing difficulties during many daily activities such as:
Difficulty responding to loud and unexpected noises
Feeling uncomfortable in clothing because of tags, seams, buttons, or textures.
Difficulty making eye contact and interacting with peers
Difficulty tolerating transitions between activities, especially if unexpected
How can occupational therapy help?
Watch an Occupational Therapist Treat a Child with Sensory Processing Disorder
In the above video, the occupational therapist demonstrated several techniques for treating symptoms of Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD. She described:
Differences between calming, alerting, and organizing sensory information
The use of movement, deep touch, and deep pressure to promote effective sensory integration
The unique role of occupational therapy in addressing a child’s specific sensory needs
Occupational therapists often use sensory integration strategies to increase a child’s ability to regulate their responses to environmental stimuli. Sensory integration treatments have been shown to have measurable positive outcomes in the areas of nighttime routines and sleeping, tactile discrimination (ability to identify and understand the environment through the sense of touch), self-dressing skills, participation in safe play, and planning and coordination with coloring activities. (Schaaf, Hunt, & Benevides, 2012).
Watch a reporter from Wall Street Journal describe treating children for Sensory Processing Disorder
In the above video, the Wall Street reporter describes that:
Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD) is not classified as a medical diagnosis, and therefore treatment may be not be covered by insurance reimbursed differently by insurance
Symptoms of SPD are usually recognized between the ages of 2 and 7
Children with SPD are commonly also affected by disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) or Attention Deficient Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
SPD can affect all of the senses differently
Occupational therapy services treat children with SPD through play based games and activities
Where to look for more detailed information? Popular media can be used to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of sensory processing and sensory processing disorder (SPD). A comprehensive literature review revealed a high rate of accuracy and reliability in non-professional literature on SPD. For the most part, uniformity in terminology was high and popular media clips offered a unique and beneficial opportunity to visualize reliable information. However, it should be noted that there is a need for more evidence that scientifically supports the efficacy of sensory integration treatments for symptoms associated with Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD) (Schaaf et al., 2012).
Schaaf, R. C., Hunt, J., & Benevides, T. (2012). Occupational Therapy Using Sensory Integration to Improve Participation of a Child With Autism: A Case Report. American Journal Of Occupational Therapy, 66(5), 547-555. doi:10.5014/ajot.2012.004473
Sweet, M. (2010). Helping Children with Sensory Processing Disorders: The Role of Occupational Therapy.Odyssey: New Directions In Deaf Education, 11(1), 20-22.
Wheble, J., & Hong, C. (2006). Apparatus for enhancing sensory processing in children. International Journal Of Therapy & Rehabilitation,13(4), 177-181.
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is an autoimmune disease where your body no longer produces enough or ceases to produce insulin. What is an autoimmune disease you ask? An autoimmune disease is actually your body “attacking itself”, in the case of Type 1 DM, if your body is producing insulin, the sees this insulin as a foreign invader and destroys it! What is insulin you ask? Insulin is a hormone that our pancreas (an organ in the body), allows the body to break down sugars. Without this protein, our blood glucose (sugars) levels rise and are not able to properly return back to normal ranges. This disease is also something you will have to live with, as there is no cure. However, there is good news, you will be able to take control of your sugars with the help from your doctor(s), dieting, and exercise!
After you have met with your doctor, you may experience a series of moods, these feelings can range from fear, nervousness/uncertainty to even anger! Don’t worry, you are not alone! You are not alone with this disease and there numerous ways to cope and deal with the symptoms! One of the best steps you can take with your recent diagnosis is of acceptance and realizing that it will not control your life.
One of the best ways to fight this disease is with proper dieting & exercise. Additionally, your doctor will prescribe insulin – this will come in the form of injections, patches or even a pump! This man made insulin will assist your body in lowering blood glucose levels. Proper dieting and exercise can lower these levels even more. One of the biggest challenges I have experienced with dieting is to cut my carbohydrates & sugars intake – I have a large sweet tooth! Your doctor may inform you of a special chart that I use weekly to ensure that I am following the correct meal plan for my body. The Glycemic Index is a chart that measures the sugar content found within foods. Sugars can come in many different forms in foods, from carbohydrates, natural fruit sugars and additives.The glycemic index is system that ranks foods 1-100 based on their effect of blood glucose levels; 100 is set as pure glucose. The lower the number falls on the GI, the slower it affects the blood glucose level, thus a “better” choice for diabetics. Additionally, diabetics should avoid to many carbohydrates, as the body processes these types of foods into sugars, usually falling on the higher end of the GI scale. Generally, you want to achieve 45-60 grams of carbohydrates a meal. Examples of these foods include starches (grains, rice oatmeal), fruit and juice and some dairy products. When there are no labels present, these are general guidelines for 15grams of carbohydrates for a few foods:
The world we live in is full of amazing new discoveries and nuances. There are creatures on this planet that have yet to be seen by human eyes. Some of which live in impossible conditions, like the tube worms living in hydrothermal vents deep in the ocean or the glass frog secluded within the rain forest of the amazon. We also live in a world of wondrous innovation and scientific discoveries. Man, has always had a curiosity to learn about life and how it evolved. These curiosities lead to scientists unlocking the mysteries of the human genome.
This new knowledge has been at the forefront of many useful medical interventions and targeted treatments. However, learning more information about how genes work has spearheaded other scientific work. In 1994, Scientists began transferring genes from one species to another in an effort to create food that could sit on store shelves for a longer period of time. We are now in a situation where chemical companies are producing the food that we eat. These companies routinely take genes from bacteria or other organisms and place them into foods in order to create a crop that is resistant to pesticides. This is what is commonly referred to as GMO’s (genetically modified organisms), GE crops (genetically engineered crops), or GM foods (genetically modified foods).
Some may think this is great, now farmer’s do not have to worry about pests eating all of their profits. But did anyone ever stop to think of the other implications of this practice? How do we know that these foods are safe to eat? The only answer provided by scientists and proponents of these crops is that there is no proof of harm. Which isn’t exactly the same as saying they are safe. What impact will these foods have on the human genome? If we are indeed what we eat, then how will these foods modify us? How will the addition of these foods affect the ecosystem? How do the introductions of these crops effect the farming community? It is strange to think that such a small change in how the worlds food is grown can have such an enormous impact on life as we know it.
GM foods have entered our food supply with such an incredible swiftness, that the public was not properly informed about what had happened. Furthermore, until recently there was no way to know if the food you are eating contains GMO’s. As the public became more aware and wary of GM foods, protests and demands for disclosure began. This lead to state senators proposing the so called “dark act”, which protects companies from being required to label foods that contain GMO ingredients. You can read more about that here: http://www.justlabelit.org/dark-act. Some food companies have chosen to voluntarily label their products due to consumer demands and protests. The chemical companies that produce these GM seeds are fighting against mandates that require the labeling of their product as genetically modified. There are still many questions about what kind of effect GMO’s will have on the population and its food supply. When asked if GM foods are harmful, the only answer given is that there is no proof that they cause harm. This is not the same as saying that they are not harmful or that they are in fact safe.
Scientists in favor of GMO’s argue that their process is no different than the practice of selective breeding done by farmers for decades. However, farmer’s engagement in selective breeding involved combining different types of the same plant life i.e. two types of tomatoes that have the flavor or color desired. This is entirely different than combining bacteria with corn that makes it produce a insecticide in its core. When it comes to GMO’s don’t we have the right to know what we are eating and what the long-term effects of eating it will be? Monsanto is one of the largest producers of GM seeds, they also happen to produce Round Up. They call there brand of seeds “Round Up Ready seeds”. Shall we let companies that produce pesticides also produce the food we eat? I’ll let you decide.
Lantham, J., I used to work as a scientist with GMO’s -now I’m having second thoughts about the risks., AlterNet, retrieved from http://www.alternet.org/food/i-used-work-scientist-gmos-now-im-having-serious-second on 11/16.2016
Caring for a loved one with Alzheimer’s Disease poses many potential challenges for families and caregivers. The demands of daily care, changes in family roles, and decisions about your loved ones future can place a high physical, emotional, and financial toll on you and your family. It can be difficult to comprehend the physical, mental, and emotional changes associated with this disease, so taking advantage of the many resources available to caregivers is essential.
What is Alzheimer’s Disease?
Alzheimer’s Disease is the most common form of dementia, which is defined as a chronic or persistent disorder that affects memory and other intellectual abilities enough to cause a disruption to an individuals daily life. Symptoms of Alzheimer’s Disease include issues with memory, thinking, and behavior which slowly progress over time until the person is no longer able to function independently. The Alzheimer’s Association (alz.org) estimates nearly 1 in 3 seniors are currently living with Alzheimer’s and related dementia. It is the 6th leading cause of death in the United States. Currently, there is no known cure, however there are several treatments available to reduce symptoms as well as continuing research to slow it’s progression.
The Caregiver Role The demands placed on individuals responsible for caring for family members diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease are significant. This type of care is physically, emotionally, and mentally demanding. The role of caregiver can be time-consuming as nearly 1 in 4 caregivers are required to provide “constant care”—committing 40 or more hours per week to caregiving— which may impact work and family life.
When caring for someone with Alzheimer’s Disease, caregivers are often required to provide personal care such as bathing, feeding, dressing, and assisting with incontinence issues. This is not an easy task as many individuals with Alzheimer’s are noncompliant due to feelings of confusion and disorientation. They are typically unable to assist even in the most basic activities of daily living so the responsibility falls solely on the caregiver.
Caregivers of individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer’s Disease often face unique challenges as well due to their loved one’s cognitive impairment. Responsibilities such as taking on financial management, medication management and household chores are all added items to the caregiver’s plate.
When combined, it is clear that these newfound responsibilities placed on you as a caregiver may lead to feelings of stress and caregiver burden.
Recognizing Symptoms of Caregiver Burden High levels of stress are frequently reported by Alzheimer’s caregivers. The following is a look at some of the possible symptoms:
Denial about the diagnosis and the effect it will on the relative in the upcoming years. Thinking they will get “better”
Anger directed towards the person you are caring for and frustration when they are unable to do activities they once were able to
Social withdrawal from friends and family that you once enjoyed
Anxiety about your loved ones future and fear that you will not be able to continue caring for them
Depression that affects your ability to cope. Thinking “I just don’t care anymore”
Exhaustion inability to complete daily tasks because you’ve become to tired
Sleeplessness sometimes caused by a never-ending to do list and concerns.
Irritability causing you to respond to your loved one negatively
Lack of concentration forgetfulness and inability to complete tasks
Health problems from thephysical and mental exhaustion
In this video, families discuss the transition from spouse, child, sibling or other relative to caregiver of someone with Alzheimer’s Disease and various ways they cope with stress associated with their new role.
What you can do… One of the most important things you can do as a caregiver is to take care of yourself. While you may be busy caring for your loved one with Alzheimer’s Disease, it’s important to recognize the impact this role has on your own emotional, physical and mental health. Be aware of feelings of frustration, confusion, anger and sadness that may occur and recognize these feelings are normal. Taking action to address your own mental health will only increase your ability to be the best version of yourself while caring for your loved one.
Always remember, it is okay to ask for help whether it’s from other family members, use of adult day services, or involving a home health care agency, if caregiving becomes too much to handle alone be sure to reach out. Utilizing these resources will not only bring you relief, but may prevent any illness or depression associated with caregiver burden.
Additional ways to take care of yourself
Ask family and friends to help you in specific ways (ex: taking the person with Alzheimer’s out for a few hours, making a meal, help with cleaning around the house etc)
Join an Alzheimer’s caregiver support group—available online or in person
The following video is an inspiring story of a woman who took on the role as caregiver to five of her relatives who had been diagnosed with Alzheimer’s Disease. Her story focuses on the positive impact this experience had on her life over the two decades she spent caring for her mother, aunts, and uncles. She recognizes the extreme sacrifices that are required to care for individuals with this disease, but with the right outlook, it can be one of the greatest experiences in your life.
It is important to remember caring for someone with Alzheimer’s Disease is a balancing act. In your role as caregiver, continue to do what you can to provide the best possible care for your loved one while maintaining your own personal well-being. Never hesitate to seek out help and support when you need it.
Alzheimer’s Association and National Alliance for Caregiving. (2004). Families Care: Alzheimer’s Caregiving in the United States. Retrieved from https://www.alz.org/national/documents/report_familiescare.pdf
Alzheimer’s Disease Education and Referral (ADEAR). (2012, July). Alzheimer’s Caregiving Tips: Caring for Yourself. Retrieved from https://d2cauhfh6h4x0p.cloudfront.net/s3fs-public/alzheimers-caregiving-tips-caring-for-yourself.pdf?iCQFtawlui3WyrwaovX3INYen2_XCSrw
Mendiola-Precoma, J., Berumen, L. C., Padilla, K., & Garcia-Alcocer, G. (2016). Therapies for Prevention and Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease. Biomed Research International, http:// library.neit.edu:2216/ehost/detail/detail?vid=6&sid=eb3ab4ba- fa34-43e2-8328-6aba78159cb4%40sessionmgr4008&hid=4106&bdata= JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=ccm&AN=117065533
Mittelman, M. (2004, May). Sustained Benefit of Supportive Intervention for DepressiveSymptoms in Caregivers of Patients With Alzheimer’s Disease. Retrieved from http:// ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/pdf/10.1176/appi.ajp.161.5.850
Epilepsy effects millions of people in today’s society. Imagine someone close to you is suffering from epilepsy and having multiple seizures a day. Medication after medication bring on side effect after side effect and nothing’s helping to stop the seizures. Imagine if there was a new drug that could help reduce seizures with minimal side effects.
Medical Marijuana is a new type of drug that is being used to treat those living with severe epilepsy.
Seizures are caused by abnormal brain activity. Although they can be caused by infections that can be treated with medications there are many cases of people living with epilepsy that are not caused by infections. Instead these people living with epilepsy have a misfiring of synapses in their brain causing seizures to happen. Medical Marijuana has the ability to change brain activity and preventing and stopping seizures.
Meet the 14-Year-Old Who Helped Legalize Medical Marijuana In NY [Documentary] | Elite Daily
According to the Chief of the Comprehensive Epilepsy Program at Denver Health and Hospitals, the use of CBD (cannabidiol):
CBD can drastically reduce the number of seizures someone with epilepsy experiences. Charlotte, a little girl who had on average 50 convulsive seizures a day, was featured on a CNN special to discuss her success with taking cannabidiol, Charlotte was given a high concentration of CBD daily for 3 weeks straight. After being exposed to the CBD her seizures reduced from 50 a day to only 2-3 nocturnal convulsions per month. Not only did the CBD have an overall positive effect on Charlottes seizures, but she was also able to be taken off of her other seizure medications. This experiment shows medical marijuana can improve seizures in those living with severe epilepsy.
According to the epilepsy foundation and their research on if medical marijuana has a positive impact on seizures report to their site:
Evidence from laboratory studies, anecdotal reports and studies on the use of cannabidiol (CBD) showed positive outcomes
Experiments with epileptic patients were given medical marijuana for 12 weeks
Reports show a decrease in seizures by 54%
Like any medication out there, there are always a possibility of side effects. These side effects can include but are not limited to fatigue, diarrhea, and a decrease in appetite.
A study done by Robert Preidt decided to take a look at the effects of medical marijuana on patients with epilepsy:
This trial used cannabidiol (CBD) on 130 participants living with epilepsy
Reports from this study show that the drug gave some negative side effect
12 patients had to discontinue treatment with CBD because of harsh side effects
These effects included diarrhea, tiredness, and decreased appetite
After researching the benefits of medical marijuana and its effect on those living with epilepsy I have concluded that the media does in fact support its medical use that can be backed up by research. These media reports show the effects that research proves.
Preidt, R. (2015). Liquid Medical Marijuana Shows Promise for Epilepsy. Retrieved
It is a common neurodevelopmental (this has to do with the way the brain grows and develops) disorder of childhood. ADHD is normally diagnosed in childhood affecting between 10-15% of school-aged children with symptoms showing between the ages of 3 and 6.
What does the acronym ADHD mean?
A=Attention (the act of carefully thinking about, listening to, or watching someone or something)
D=Deficit (a problem that causes a decrease in some ability)
H=Hyperactivity (the state or condition of being excessively active)
Now that we know a little bit about ADHD, what would the symptoms of it look like?
Fails to pay close attention to details or makes careless mistakes
Has difficulty sustaining attention
Appears not to listen
Struggles to follow directions
Easily distracted and easily loses things
Avoids tasks requiring sustained mental effort (ex: homework or classwork)
Fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in chair
Has difficulty remaining seated
Runs about or climbs excessively in children
Difficulty engaging in activities quietly
Acts as if driven by a motor
Blurts out answers before questions have been completed
Difficulty waiting or taking turns
Unable to play quietly alone
No safety awareness in certain situations
Who can be diagnosed with ADHD?
The answer to this question is simple; anyone can be diagnosed with it. It typically is diagnosed around the ages of 3 to 6 years old when the symptoms start to show. This diagnosis is 3x more common in boys than girls, but this doesn’t mean that girls can’t be diagnosed with it. Since there is no single test for it, other tests have to be completed in order to rule out other causes before a formal diagnosis is established. Even though it is mostly diagnosed in childhood this doesn’t rule out a diagnosis in adulthood.
There is an episode from the TV show Modern Family and this episode was in season one, episode eighteen and it showed a real life connection between an undiagnosed child and ADHD. The link to this episode is https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0bA4N_ho99M or you can find it on the ABC website. The only thing with these links is that you have to either have a YouTube account to view it or a cable provider login to view the entire episode. This episode mainly concerns the father (Phil) and the son (Luke) and how their mannerisms mimic the symptoms of ADHD. In this particular episode we see Alex (one of Phil’s daughters) mention that Luke might have ADHD. In response to this comment Luke says he doesn’t and then asks what it is. Alex doesn’t want to answer since she knows by the time she explains he would be gone. Through this episode we see that instead of explaining the symptoms we see the father and son act them out and what makes it even better is that they are both completely oblivious to the fact that they are showing typical ADHD symptoms. Their mom was very overwhelmed with her son’s lack of focus and the father then attempted to help his son with a project due the next day. We see different scenarios were different symptoms are shown, while Alex is talking through some of the symptoms with her mom, since her brother and father are oblivious that they are even experiencing symptoms. Some different examples we see is that Luke gets easily distracted with his project or any type of homework, he tries to divert to other tasks like games or asking questions about other things.
Link to photo above
Another big example is when we see Phil down to the garage to get something, and an overhead light that was flickering distracted him. Then we see him get up and opened up the light fixture to see what was wrong with the bulb, as he did this he realized he had found his sunglasses that he was looking for. Then we witness him lose the focus for the flickering light and grab the sunglasses that were on a dangerously high shelf. Alex and her mom both realize at the same time that this is going on right now and rush to the rescue, to help Phil and to get Luke to work on his project. If you want more information the link to the blog post is: https://wolfshades.com/2010/03/26/tv-gem/.
You’re not alone, in your diagnosis
Each year approximately 11-20% of children are diagnosed with ADHD. This doesn’t mean that you are different or weird. There are many people that you might not realize are even diagnosed with it. Some of these include some famous sports players, actors, musicians, politicians, TV show hosts, etc. Lets see how some of these people cope with their symptoms.
There are even some animated characters that are portrayed as having ADHD. Many people are familiar with the classic story of Winnie the Pooh. The main characters in the story line all display characteristics that can be linked back to ADHD. The five main characters that we will be looking at and how they connect to symptoms of ADHD are: Tigger, Winnie the Pooh, Rabbit, Piglet, and Eeyore.
Tigger: This type of ADHD can be referred to as the “tigger type.” Most times when we saw the character of Tigger, he was always bouncing around because that’s what Tiggers do best. Some of the symptoms we can see in Tigger are inattention (easily distracted), impulsivity (doesn’t think before he acts), talks a lot, hyperactivity (has a lot of energy), restlessness (can’t sit still or wait his turn, and disorganization.
Winnie the Pooh: When viewing Winnie the Pooh we can relate him back to the classic inattentive ADHD. This is because he tends to be in a fog most of the time and even though he is very lovable, we can see that he is inattentive, sluggish, and unmotivated. We can think of this type as a daydreamer with their head in the clouds.
Rabbit: Rabbit is the classic case of the over-focused ADHD. He has a very hard time shifting from one task to another because he is so oriented to that one specific task. He also gets stuck in negative thoughts, obsesses over things, inflexible, worries a lot, and always wants thing his way. Link to photo
Piglet: Piglets character can be compared to some children who are diagnosed with ADHD in the fact that they are always worried, nervous, and startled easily. Sometimes this causes stuttering, which we sometimes see, this can be a residual symptom of ADHD in some children. In this “Piglet Style” ADHD the brain is so over-stimulated that they are hypervigilant, trouble shifting from one activity to another, obsessive and gets stuck with negative thoughts. Link to photo
Eeyore: This character of Eeyore is diagnosed with ADHD, along with depression, which can commonly happen with an ADHD diagnosis. With Eeyore we can see that he is inattentive, he has chronic sadness, negative, apathetic, low energy level, he feels like he is worthless, helpless, and hopeless. We can see all of this with Eeyore as he walks slow, looks sad, doesn’t get much done, and all he really ever gets happy over is the fact he is noticed. Link to photo
What does it feel like to actually have ADHD?
To connect everything together here is one last video clip, this clip gives examples from ordinary people who are diagnosed with ADHD of what it feels like to have it.
All together these media sources summarize what the literature has to say on the topic of ADHD. Some key points from what the literature says on the topic is that ADHD is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder in school-aged children. These Children may have trouble paying attention, controlling impulsive behaviors, and can be overly active (Attention-Deficit, N.D.). Children who are eventually diagnosed with ADHD don’t grow out of what some people might call typical childhood behaviors. According to Leslie, et al., some things that ADHD can impact are: academics, family and peer relationships, poor self-image, and low occupational performance (2007). For people diagnosed with ADHD this does not mean that they will be unsuccessful, this just means if they do not receive proper treatment that there might be serious consequences like failure in school, added stress to the family, depression, disruption to family life, substance abuse, job failure, and the list goes on. For a child to be diagnosed with ADHD they must have six symptoms and they must have them before the age of 12 (CHADD, N.D.). These symptoms can then be broken down into three categories of predominantly inattentive, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive, or combined. With the inattentive presentation these children have a hard time finishing tasks, paying attention to details or following directions. This type of person would be someone who is easily distracted and forgets things. With the predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type these children fidgets, talks excessively, hard to sit still for long periods of time like in class, always on the go, impulsive, accident-prone, etc. The combined type has symptoms of both (Attention Deficit, N.D.). These symptoms can present as mild, moderate, or severe (CHADD, N.D.) and they will continue into adulthood. Throughout the years children can experience delays in independent functioning and behave or act younger than others their age. Another residual effect is that they might have mild delays in language, motor skills, or social development (CHADD, N.D.). A child diagnosed with ADHD might experience issues as they are growing up like academic delays, driving problems, difficulty with social problems, substance abuse, risky sexual behavior, etc. Some treatment options to help control and reduce symptoms are behavior therapy and medication (Attention Deficit, N.D.). It is important to remember that not every treatment option is the same for each child it varies depending on them. Not every child will present with the same symptoms or difficulties managing ADHD, it all depends on the person. Link to photo above
If you have any additional questions three great sources to look at are:
How can you better understand your diagnosis and healthy living?
An initial diagnosis can be scary and confusing, especially if you do not know exactly what that means for your body or your future. Understanding what it is you are diagnosed with and how it will affect you is extremely important. Multiple Sclerosis is no different but having a better understanding will help with the way that you view it.
What is Multiple Sclerosis?
Multiple Sclerosis is often known as MS, which is an autoimmune disease. The tissues and cells of your body are attacked, causing nerve damage. This causes a blockage of information to the body resulting in slow or absent body movements and thoughts.
Who can be diagnosed with MS?
Anyone can be diagnosed with MS. Typically, beginning symptoms become noticeable and are diagnosed between the ages of 20-50 years old in young adults. Multiple sclerosis is three times more likely to be diagnosed in women than in men. It is also more common in ethnic groups. Individuals with a family history of MS have a slightly higher risk of being diagnosed due to genetics. It is currently uncertain of the exact causes of MS but known that ultimately, anyone can diagnosed at any time throughout their lives.
Below is a video of a young, active woman who was recently diagnosed and asking for advice. She is a professional dancer and lives with MS. Is this possible? Yes! Studies show that typically individuals diagnosed with MS remain working for many years developing a strong working history for as long as their body allows (Bishop, 11).
What are the Symptoms of MS?
Symptoms of multiple sclerosis can vary in each person. Some may experience worse or more frequent symptoms than others. Some symptoms related to multiple sclerosis include:
Changes in your vision
Difficulty moving your arms and/or legs
Jerking or stiffening movements of the arms/legs or body
Numbness and Tingling
Shaking of the body
Bowel & Bladder changes
Depression & Anxiety
Different Types of Multiple Sclerosis
Now that you know what symptoms may lead to a diagnosis of MS, it is important to know that there are three different types. Different media sources may describe MS as having four categories and other resources may break it into three due to new changes and groupings of the diagnosis’. The three types of MS are Primary Progressive MS (PPMS), Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS) and Secondary Progressive MS (SPMS). Each of these diagnosis’ can be found in both males and females and at any age. RRMS is the most common diagnosis and typically later turns into SPMS as it worsens. PPMS is the least common diagnosis’. Experienced symptoms and the pace of worsening can vary in each type. The video below explains the different types of multiple sclerosis further in depth. The video does explain about a forth type known as Progressive Relapsing MS which was often used as a diagnosis in the past, but with further research it has been eliminated (Bishop, 7).
How to Better Live and Manage MS
Living with multiple sclerosis can vary for individuals depending on the affect of symptoms, how quickly or slowly the disease develops and how the disease is being managed. Currently, there is no cure but finding a way to manage and modify the disease is what can slow down it’s development. Medication is one of the most popular ways to do so. Other than medication, a healthy lifestyle including eating healthy and exercising (if you are able to) will be sure to help decrease the worsening of symptoms and slow down the development. An article titled An Update: Multiple Sclerosis further explains that the basis of generalized healthy living is what will help to slow down the development of MS (Faguy, 541). There are many people who live with MS throughout the world and they are people of all different ages, races, ethnicity, gender and social statures. Although all individuals may be experiencing different symptoms, working together and better understanding the disease is what helps these individuals to better live with their diagnosis. Below is a video of real life individuals who have been diagnosed with MS at different stages in their lives and their view and how they are currently living with the diagnosis.
Bishop, M., Timblin, R. I., & Rumrill Jr., P. D. (2016). Medical, Psychosocial, and Vocational Aspects of Multiple Sclerosis: Implications for Rehabilitation Professionals. Journal Of Rehabilitation, 82(2), 6-13.
Faguy, K. (2016). Multiple Sclerosis: An Update. Radiologic Technology, 87(5), 529-553
Habibi, M., & Kuttab, H. (2016). Management of multiple sclerosis and the integration of related specialty pharmacy programs within health systems. American Journal Of Health-System Pharmacy, 73811-819. doi:10.2146/ajhp150723
Is it true that drinking red wine is good for you?
Three different media sources have stated and explained why and how red wine can improve your health. You may wonder how an alcoholic beverage can be beneficial to your health, and these media clips will inform.
Now, you must be wondering if these facts from the media clips are true. In fact, three different research articles were published agreeing that red wine is good for your cardiovascular health. However, studies conducted to learn how red wine is good for you, have determined which kind of red wine and how much is beneficial and not damaging to your body.
The media states red wine can reduce risk for heart disease, in which the research explains a lower risk of coronary heart disease is assisted with moderate daily consumption of alcohol. Cao & Prior also explain through their how low to moderate intake of wine is associated with lower mortality from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease; however, beer did not have the same effect. Red wine was found to be adversely different from white wine, because red white contains greater levels of flavonoids, a class of plant with secondary metabolites.
How does this benefit my health?
A study was conducted how red wines including Malbec, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot interact with polyphenol properties with their antibacterial effect in the consumption of meat. This research showed that the best antibacterial effect of phenolic compounds combinations of Merlot or Malbec wines were due to higher flavonol concentration (Rodriguez et al, 2013). The article explains through their research that polyphenol combination found in wines or grapes as a source of phenolic compounds useful as natural biopreservatives (Rodriguez et al, 2013). The natural products provided extra human health benefits. It aids in the prevention of age-relate disorders, such as neurodegenerative disease, inflammation, diabetes, as well as cardiovascular disease (O’Connell, 2009). It is suggested that resveratrol turns on the cells own defensive mechanism of the cells and prevent damage to individual cells.
What does it do to protect my health?
The media and news share that alcohol; such as red wine can protect the body against cancer and other life threatening disease to the human body. More current research has found that reseveratrol in red wine exhibits therapeutic potential for cancer chemprovention as well as cardioprotection. Ethanol is a beneficial effect which increases in plasma high-density lipoprotein levels, decreases in platelet aggregation, and stimulation of fibrinolysis (Cao & Prior, 2000). Red wine also has antioxidant activities, to inhibit platelet aggregation, as well as to relax the blood vessels (Cao & Prior, 2000). Consumption of one to two drinks a day of red wine is good for your overall health.
Cao, G., & Prior, R. L. (2000). Red Wine in Moderation: Potential Health Benefits Independent of Alcohol. Nutrition In Clinical Care, 3(2), 76.
O’Connell, N. (2009). Red-wine polyphenol resveratrol demonstrates significant health benefits. Nurse Prescribing, 7(9), 422.
RODRÍGUEZ VAQUERO, M. J., AREDES FERNÁNDEZ, P. A., MANCA DE NADRA, M. C., & STRASSER DE SAAD, A. M. (2013). EFFECT OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS FROM ARGENTINEAN RED WINES ON PATHOGENIC BACTERIA IN A MEAT MODEL SYSTEM. Journal Of Food Biochemistry, 37(4), 425-431. doi:10.1111/j.1745-4514.2011.00648.x
Death from opioid overdose in the United Stated has greatly increased in the past 20 years. Focus on addiction has changed from imprisonment to treatment. Changing the focus and increasing the availability of Naloxone, a drug used to reverse the effects of an overdose, to EMTs, law enforcement, families and friends of addicts has greatly decreased the risk of death from overdose. These deaths have opened up the discussion of pharmacies providing Naloxone without a prescription and more insurance coverage to maintain the cost-effectiveness of programs. Multiple programs, both local and federal, have been started to provide lower rates for treatment and Naloxone use to decrease deaths.
Overdose is the leading cause of accidental deaths in the United States. In 2014 47,055 deaths were reported. 18,893 of those deaths were due to prescription painkillers and 10,574 were due to heroin overdose (ASAM, 2016). Many of these deaths could be prevented if Naloxone was available to family and friends.
Some questions about Naloxone:
How does Naloxone work? How is it given?
When a person overdoses they stop breathing. Naloxone is most effective when used with CPR. If the first dose of Naloxone doesn’t work another can be given with no adverse effects. (Engleman, n.d.). Basically Naloxone works to reverse an overdose. It is a drug that has been designed to block the opioid from entering into the brain and reversing the effect of the drug. It can be given as a nasal spray, or as a shot. The nasal spray works within 3-4 minutes and the shot works within 2-3 minutes. The effects of Naloxone can last 60-90 minutes which is usually plenty of time for EMTs to arrive. Naloxone is also more effective if the person who overdosed is given CPR. (Engleman, 2016)
While this video is Canadian, it explains how Naloxone works and how it is given.
I understand why EMTs have it, but why police, family and friends? What kind of training is needed/provided?
It is important for families and friends to be provided with Naloxone because they are usually the first to find the person who overdosed. The same goes to police, often they are the first to arrive at the scene, before the ambulance arrives. Training for safe use of Naloxone in Rhode Island is provided by the Naloxone Overdose Prevention and Education Program of Rhode Island (NOPE-RI) (Engleman, n.d.). The nasal spray is easiest to use, it is placed into a nostril and sprayed. The shot requires more training but it is injected into a large muscle, usually the thigh or the upper arm.
What happens after they go to the hospital?
Many addicts go to treatment after the hospital. There have also been local programs set up to decrease deaths from overdose. In Gloucester Massachusetts a program called the Angel Program was developed as a way for addicts to come and get into treatment faster. Treatment is expensive and insurance doesn’t always cover it. (Mankiewitcz, 2016).
Here is a video of the Police chief in Gloucester, MA about the Angel Program:
The concept of COPD does not seem to be a controversial topic. All of the literature located directly correlate to the media clips that I chose, as well as to the primary authorities regarding the disease. WebMD suggests that some of the ways to combat COPD are building stamina through cardiovascular exercise guided via pulmonary rehab, oxygen use, and cessation of smoking. They also recommend during an attack to breathe through pursed lips in order to steady oxygen intake. See what WebMD has to say in the clip below:
Healtihnation’s media clip provides a breakdown of the types and effects of COPD; chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma. It describes each respectively as the hardening and enlarging of the aveoli in the lungs, increases mucus production and inability to clear mucus from the lungs, and the constriction and/or inflammation of the bronchial tubes. It also states that these constitute a long term blockage of airways and describes that although there can be some genetic or hereditary cause, 85% of COPD cases are due to the effects of smoking. Take a look at the clip here:
The New York Times ran a report in 2007 highlighting the case of one COPD sufferer, and her coming to terms with the effects and treatment of the disease. She is a part of the 85% of diagnoses caused by smoking. The report also cited that COPD is the fourth most frequent cause of death in the US, and predicted to be third by 2020. Actual number of cases beat their time estimate, as COPD is now the 3rd leading cause of death according to the NIH as of 2016. The clip also provided some demographics of sufferers, such as half of the diagnosed COPD patients are under 65 and that there are at least twelve million people diagnosed, with estimates of double that figure due unreported cases. The reason for the unreported cases is that many sufferers may think they are simply out of shape or have chronic flu or cold symptoms. The report also listed treatment options, such as antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, bronchodilators, surgery to excise infected lung tissue, dietary restrictions, and increased exercise, as well as the primary diagnosis method of thermometry, also known as spirometry. See the report below:
The primary authoritative sources generally are uniform in information regarding COPD, as the disease process is well understood. Each similarly states the cause of, process, symptoms, and treatment options. The National Institute of Health has a more comprehensive of the three, thoroughly detailing all aspects from cause through treatment. According to it, the disease process is defined by less air flow in and out of the airways due to the airways and air sacs losing their elastic quality, the walls between many of the air sacs being destroyed, the walls of the airways become thick and inflamed, or the airways make more mucus than usual, which can clog them.
The American Lung Association describes COPD as including two main conditions; emphysema and chronic bronchitis, cause by long-term exposure to lung irritants that damage the lungs and the airways. The most common cause being cigarette smoke, but also breathing in secondhand smoke, air pollution, or chemical fumes or dust from the environment or workplace also can contribute to COPD. It also describes a rare genetic factor called alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency of the liver that may also play a role in causing COPD. This condition exacerbates the damage the lung experience if exposed to smoke or other irritants. It also suggests people who have asthma can develop COPD due to the chronic inflammation it causes, narrowing the airways. Treatment usually can reverse the inflammation and narrowing, though if not, COPD can manifest.
The CDC website indicates treatment of COPD requires a careful and thorough evaluation by a physician. “COPD treatment can alleviate symptoms, decrease the frequency and severity of exacerbations, and increase exercise tolerance. For those who smoke, the most important aspect of treatment is smoking cessation. Avoiding tobacco smoke and removing other air pollutants from the patient’s home or workplace are also important (CDC.gov, 2016)” While each site provides its own format, all three provide essentially the same information which supports the details given in each of the video clips chosen. This leads me to conclude that there is a widely agreed upon consensus on how COPD is caused, how the disease progresses, and how it can be treated, as well as that since there is no cure, prevention of the disease through abstaining from smoking is the best recommendation to avoid COPD.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Retrieved November 02, 2016, from http://www.cdc.gov/copd/index.html
COPD. Retrieved November 02, 2016, from http://www.lung.org/lung-health-and-diseases/lung-disease-lookup/copd/
Living With COPD – Watch WebMD Video. Retrieved October 28, 2016, from http://www.webmd.com/lung/video/living-with-copd
Olsen, E., & Grady, D. (2007.). Gasping for Air: Life With C.O.P.D. – Video – NYTimes.com. Retrieved October 28, 2016, from http://www.nytimes.com/video/health/1194817104570/gasping-for-air-life-with-c-o-p-d.html
What is Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)? Retrieved October 28, 2016, from http://www.healthination.com/lungs/copd/what-is-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd/
What Is COPD? – NHLBI, NIH. Retrieved November 02, 2016, from http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/copd/