Prevention of DVT’s with SCD’s

What is a DVT?

A deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurs when a blood clot forms in one of the veins in your body, the most common site for this is usually in your legs. These clots can become very serious and dislodge and go to your lungs which can then cause a blockage of blood flow (this is then called a pulmonary embolism). More than 200,000 people per year experience DVT’s and of those patients, 50,000 experience complications from a pulmonary embolism (Larkin, Mitchell & Petrie, 2012).

What are symptoms of a DVT?

Some common symptoms of a DVT are:

  • Swelling in the affected leg
  • Redness
  • Pain
  • Feeling of warmth on the skin
  • DVT’s can also occur with no symptoms

What are common causes of a DVT?

The blood clots of DVT’s can be caused by anything that prevents your blood from circulating or clotting normally, such as injury to a vein, surgery, certain medications and limited movement.

  • Pregnancy increases the pressure in the veins in your pelvis and legs. The risk of blood clots from pregnancy can continue for up to six weeks after you have your baby.
  • Birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy increase your blood’s ability to clot.
  • Smoking affects blood clotting and circulation, which can increase your risk of DVT.
  • Sitting for long periods of time, such as when driving or flying. When your legs remain still for hours, your calf muscles don’t contract, which normally helps blood circulate. Blood clots can form in the calves of your legs if your calf muscles don’t move for long periods.


What are SCD’s and what are they used for?

A Sequential Compression Device (SCD) is a safe non-invasive therapy for the prevention of a DVT. The SCD sleeve is wrapped around the calf muscle and provides a gentle compression or squeeze to promote the flow of blood back to your heart. The Sequential Compression keeps the blood moving and helps to prevent it from clotting. The SCD mimics the contraction of the calf during walking. The units are to be used while resting or in bed and are placed on patients during surgery to help prevent DVT’s as well. SCD devices sequentially inflate and deflate air-filled sleeves on the lower extremities. With knee-high sleeves, pressure starts at the ankle and moves toward the knee; pressure is approximately 45 mm Hg at the ankle and 35 mm Hg at the knee. With thigh-high sleeves, pressure at the thigh is 30 mm Hg. Each compression lasts approximately 11 seconds.


How to properly apply a SCD?

  • Make sure the ankle lines up with the ankle indication on the sleeve.
  • Wrap the sleeve around the patient’s leg and secure it.
  • Place two fingers between the patient’s leg and the sleeve to ensure a correct fit.
  • Attach the sleeve to the mechanical pump unit.
  • To check connections, note the arrows that indicate accurate insertions from sleeve to pump on the pump side and on the patient side of the pump hose.
  • Turn on the mechanical pump and confirm it’s working properly.
  • Stay with the patient to assess sleeve inflation and deflation through one full cycle.
  • Remove the sleeve once every 8 hours to assess skin integrity and neurovascular status of the extremity and to reinforce patient education.
  • Know that the sleeve should be removed during bathing and when the patient ambulates.
  • Instruct the patient to call for assistance when preparing to ambulate.
  • Caution the patient never to ambulate with the sleeve in place due to the risk of falling.
  • Make sure the sleeve is removed only for a short time daily.

What is some evidence supporting the use of SCD’s?

  • In a study by Nagahiro et al that included 706 patients undergoing general thoracic surgery, 362 patients were given prophylactic sequential compression devices, and none of these patients developed a pulmonary embolism. Of the 344 patients who did not receive sequential compression prophylaxis, however, 7 developed a pulmonary embolism (Summerfield, 2006).
  • The use of the SCD for the prevention of DVT is covered by most insurances as a post-operative take-home therapy.
  • This method is effective in preventing thrombosis, and compares favorably with pharmacological prophylaxis.
  • In a study done to compare different SCD systems the results yielded that there is no reason to believe that any particular compression is more or less effective in preventing DVT than any other system, Intermittent compression prevents DVT and prevents venous stasis (Morris & Woodcock, 2004).

SCD’s in the media

A new trend in professional athletes has been utilizing the use of compression devices to help mobilize fluid and speed recovery. This technology has been modeled from the SCD’s that can be seen in hospitals and other healthcare facilities. An example of this brand is “Normatec”, the theory is that it provides graded compression in a circumferential manner, it brings away cell metabolites such as lactic acid that can make your muscles feel sore but it also brings increased blood flow to help quicken recovery. There is still more data needed on the research of this product. The trend has spread throughout professional sports such as the NFL and NBA where this product can be seen being used, Good Morning America also did a segment on Normatec and highlighted a few professional athletes such as Lebron James as being an athlete who is actively using this product. While it is apparent the usefulness that SCD’s have provided in preventing DVT’s it is very exciting that there are now products out there that could help to improve professional athletes overall recovery and performance! Technology is continuing to rapidly improve and grow so it will be interesting to see how these devices progress into the future.



Some useful links and resources for more information!

Morris, R. J., & Woodcock, J. P. (2004). Evidence-Based Compression: Prevention of Stasis and Deep Vein Thrombosis. Annals of Surgery, 239(2), 162–171.

Ashworth, S. C. (2014). Sequential Compression Devices and Clots. Critical Care Nurse34(6), 68-69. doi:10.4037/ccn2014264

Larkin, B. G., Mitchell, K. M., & Petrie, K. (2012). Translating evidence to practice for mechanical venous thromboembolism prophylaxis. AORN Journal96(5), 513-527. doi:10.1016/j.aorn.2012.07.011

Summerfield, D. (2006). Decreasing the incidence of deep vein thrombosis through the use of prophylaxis. AORN Journal84(4), 642-645. doi:10.1016/S0001-2092(06)63943-4


Medical Marijuana & Health Care Providers

What is medical marijuana? 

As seen on the web, medical marijuana is the name given to dried buds and leaves of varieties of the Cannabis sativa plant. It has been known to be helpful in treating symptoms, illnesses and conditions. The most common use for medical marijuana in the United States is for pain control. At this time the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not recognized medical marijuana as medicine. However they have found that the marijuana plant contains chemicals that have shown positive results in both reducing and decreasing symptoms in illnesses. At this time further research is being conducted to determine the benefits that medical marijuana has on patients.

Medical conditions positively effected from medical marijuana

  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Lou Gehrig’s Disease/ALS
  • Parkinsons
  • Arthritis
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Endometriosis
  • Interstitial cystitis
  • Glaucoma
  • PTSD
  • HIV
  • Irritable bowel syndrome
  • Cancer
  • Anxiety
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis

Benefits of Medical Marijuana

  • Helpful in treating nausea and vomiting from cancer chemotherapy
  • Can be helpful in treatment of neuropathic pain (pain caused by damage nerves)
  • Helps improve food intake
  • Those who use may require less pain medicine
  • THC and CBD slow growth/cause death in certain types of cancer cells growing in lab dishes and slow the spread of some forms of cancer
  • Helps in managing anxiety

Risks of Medical Marijuana

  • Can lower the users control over movement
  • Cause disorientation
  • Produce unpleasant thoughts or feeling of anxiety and paranoia
  • Delivers harmful substances to users and those close by including many of the same substance found in tobacco smoke
  • Marijuana plants come in different strains making it difficult to predict each users experience
  • Chronic users can develop a dependence

How to take the next step in considering if medical marijuana is a good option for you?

  1. Your doctor: Reaching out to your primary care physician is a good place to start. Your family doctor may be able to prescribe medical marijuana or refer you to someone to provide you with better medical advice.
  2. Medical Marijuana specialist: A specialist can provide you with better information and understanding of how it can improve you current condition!
  3. Medical Marijuana clinic: A clinic will provide you with staffed members who specialize in medical marijuana therapy. A clinic will also include a dispensary where you will be provided with more information on what strains would be appropriate for you.

Refer to Medicinal Marijuana Association for additional information on this topic :

Useful Resources for those considering medical marijuana

Marijuana legalization status:

Medical Marijuana support groups:

Research findings

In conclusion, at this time further research needs to be conducted to determine the value medical marijuana offers to those battling with an array of illnesses and conditions. After completing significant research on this topic, my findings both on the web and in scholarly journal articles have suggested similar conclusions. Research is weak. More research needs to be done to confirm whether medical marijuana is both safe, and useful. Many practicing doctors at this time are too unfamiliar with medical marijuana therefore not prescribing it to their patients. However as explained above in the video clips, medical marijuana is becoming much more popular and many patients are becoming increasingly interested in trialling medical marijuana for overall medical benefits!


Abuse, N. I. (n.d.). Marijuana as Medicine. Retrieved February 21, 2018, from

Ali, E. (2016). Medical Marijuana. Alive: Canada;s Natural Health & Wellness        Magazine, (402), 49-   52.

Grinspoon, M. P. (2018, January 09). Medical marijuana. Retrieved February 21, 2018, from

Spencer, N., Shaw, E., & Slaven, M. (2016). Medical cannabis use in an       outpatient   pallaiative care clinic: A retrospective char revicew. Journal of Pain  Management, 9(4) , 507-513.

Vin-Raviv, N., Akinyemiju, T., Meng, Q., Sakhuja, S., & Hayward, R. (2017).           Marijuana use and inpatient outcomes amongh hospitalized patients: analysis of   the   nationwide inpatient sample database. Cancer Medicine, 6(1), 320-329. Doi:10. 1002/ca4.968

Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder that develops before the age of three and involves impaired social interaction as well as communication. Also commonly seen is a small range of interests and activities for a person with ASD. Originally this disorder was discovered in 1943, by child psychiatrist Leo Kanner. The people with this disorder can have various levels of intelligence ranging from low to normal, as well as difference in severity of symptoms. The key component in all of these children is the lack of social and communication skills.

1 in 68 children in the US have ASD. This is a 30% increase from two years ago, in which it was 1 in 88 children were diagnosed. The reason for this dramatic incline is unknown, it is also possibly that awareness has made it easier for children to be diagnosed earlier during there development.According to Autism speaks many symptoms of the disorder consist of but are not limited to…

Possible signs of autism in babies and toddlers:                            By 6 months, no social smiles or other warm, joyful expressions directed at people
By 6 months, limited or no eye contact
By 9 months, no sharing of vocal sounds, smiles or other nonverbal communication
By 12 months, no babbling
By 12 months, no use of gestures to communicate (e.g. pointing, reaching, waving etc.)
By 12 months, no response to name when called
By 16 months, no words
By 24 months, no meaningful, two-word phrases
Any loss of any previously acquired speech, babbling or social skillsPossible signs of autism at any age:
Avoids eye contact and prefers to be alone
Struggles with understanding other people’s feelings
Remains nonverbal or has delayed language development
Repeats words or phrases over and over (echolalia)
Gets upset by minor changes in routine or surroundings
Has highly restricted interests
Performs repetitive behaviors such as flapping,                          rocking or spinning
Has unusual and often intense reactions to sounds, smells, tastes, textures, lights and/or colors

Children may demonstrate some of these behaviors, but not all. Also children who develop some of these behaviors, may not be autistic. If you believe your child may have ASD, contact your pediatrician for testing. Early intervention is extremly important for these children.

Many interventions for ASD are home bases therapies such as

  • Applied Behavioral Analysis
  • Occupational Therapy
  • Speech Therapy

Causes of ASD… These can be genetic in origin from either parent on chromosome 16 or even a spontaneous gene change during embryonic development. Increase age of either parent also increases the risk, as well as birth complications, premature birth and the birth of multiples such as twins and triplets. ASD is also linked to abnormal brain development at an early age. Women who have been exposed to German Measles or during the course of their pregnancy also put their child at t a higher risk of developing the disorder. Although it is a common myth, vaccines do NOT cause Autism Spectrum Disorder! 

These children are also at risk for many other comorbidities. Such as…Epilepsy, gastrointestinal problems, selective or restricted eating habits , sleep disturbances, Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADD and ADHD), Anxiety, Depression, and Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Those who have ASD also commonly engage in self injurious behaviors such as but not limited to…head-banging, hand-biting, and excessive self-rubbing and scratching. Which if not monitored can lead to concussions and life-long brain damage. These behaviors tend to be coping mechanisms for too much sensory stimulation, whether it be environmental or internal stressors. With help from early intervention sometimes these self-injuries behavior can be replaced with functional and non-destructive behaviors.

In Conclusion…ASD is a disorder of sensory processing. What may feel normal to a neurotypical brain could be extremly distressing to the ASD brain. These children can lead very happy and healthy lives with early intervention services as well as love and understanding. Remember April is ASD awareness month, more information about advocacy events can be found at

Great Informational References  


Warning signs:


Autism Friendly Events:

For those who are more audio or visual learners, I attached two great videos to help explain Autism Spectrum Disorder. The first is an animated explanation of the disorder. The second video is facts about ASD and even covers popular myths about the disorder as well.

The truth about the FLU

What is Influenza?

The flu is an acute respiratory illness caused by viruses A or B. It effects the respiratory or gastrointestinal systems. The flu lasts couple weeks but can be life threatening.

Image result for flu



  • The flu is highly contagious
  • It can last 1-2 weeks and recover or can be life threatening
  • Reasons why healthy people are dying from the flu is due to the immune system fighting the flu can end in shock, in organ failure and death
  • The issue with the pneumonia and the dangers of it is that once your body fights the flu for the 4-5 days you feel better but then suddenly get really sick again in which is the bacterial pneumonia and this is what causes hospitalization or death
  • The flu vaccine is 60% effective but those who have received the vaccine and do get the flu are the cases least likely to be at risk of hospitalization or death
  • 34 million people having been infected with the flu virus

Those most at risk include:

  • Very young, under 5
  • Older than 65
  • pregnant
  • Those with an underlying illness
  • Those with compromised immune system

Symptoms/warning signs to look for in children:

  • Difficulty breathing or labored breathing
  • Cyonotic skin (bluish skin)
  • Unable to hold down fluids
  • Lethargic or difficulty arousing
  • Pneumonia

Symptoms/warning signs to look for adults:

  • Difficulty breathing
  • Pain or pressure in chest or abdomen/stomach
  • Sudden dizziness
  • Confusion
  • Severe vomiting

What can you do to prevent the risk of contracting the flu:

  • Hand washing as often as possible
  • Getting vaccinated with the flu vaccine
  • Staying away from anyone who may or does have the flu


Image result for wash your hands




E-Cigarettes: The Ugly Truth

Many people agree that smoking cigarettes are harmful, but what about smoking e-cigarettes? Isn’t it just flavored water vapor without all the toxic cancer-causing chemicals in tobacco products?

The short answer is NO.

The science behind vaping
E-cigarette emissions are not just water vapor.

It includes chemicals that heated result in high levels of toxic compounds that can be lethal if inhaled or ingested. Formaldehyde is one thermal product.

What’s alarming is that specific flavors that are proven safe when eaten in food have not been shown to be safe when inhaled. Some contain diacetyl that gives butter popcorn its flavor which has been found to cause lung irritation and respiratory illness in employees that worked in popcorn factories.

In fact, these chemicals haven’t been tested sufficiently to rule out long-term side effects.

Lack of quality measures

Most short-term side-effects are the result of manufacturing problems.

  • The design of the devices that holds the e-juice is not regulated.
  • Devices can cause burns since the lithium-ion battery can explode if charged inappropriately.

  • The most significant concern is child poisoning since liquid nicotine whether ingested or absorbed through the skin can be lethal to a small child.

There is no childproofing on e-cigarette packaging.

Although regulation of manufacturing and quality control will help resolve most of these issues, the lack of consensus among scientists regarding the long-term health effects of electronic cigarettes creates obstacles for the US government to implement a public policy to deal with e-cigarettes use in open spaces. But most research indicates that since the effects of second-hand electronic cigarette smoke are unknown, it’s best not to smoke indoors, yet many people using e-cigarettes smoke indoors since it’s permissible on some airlines, restaurants, and offices.

Better than smoking tobacco?
Supporters of e-cigarettes say there is no tar with all the carcinogenic chemicals and it offers nicotine smokers nicotine without the deadly toxins released when cigarettes are heated.

The key comparison is to smoking and just because the known risks so far are less than smoking tobacco doesn’t make e-cigarettes a good alternative to quit smoking.

Supporters even claim that e-cigarettes help save lives and provide immense benefit to public health by assisting smokers to quit tobacco but downplayed the research findings on degradation by-products, the chemicals released when the e-juice that contains the nicotine is heated up.

Can it help you quit smoking?

A literature review of the use of e-cigarettes in the United States focuses on the debate that they help smokers quit yet it has no hard data to support that claim.

Studies indicate that e-cigarettes are not as helpful as nicotine patches when it comes to quitting. And often e-cigarette users are dual tobacco smoke users.


Final Thoughts
Regardless of your side on this issue, keep this product away from children!

E-cigarettes haven’t been around for us to know about the long-term health effects, it might be harmless or 20 years from now we will see a spike in lung cancer.

And because it’s less harmful does not mean that it is safe.



(Cheri) Marcham, C. L., & Springston, J. (. (2017). E-Cigarettes: A Hazy Hazard. Professional Safety62(6), 46.

Cobb, N. K., & Sonti, R. (2016). E-Cigarettes: The Science Behind the Smoke and Mirrors. Respiratory Care61(8), 1122-1128. doi:10.4187/respcare.04944

Cressey, D. (2014). E-cigarettes: The lingering questions. Nature513(7516), 24-26. doi:10.1038/513024a

The correlation between Mental illness and mass shootings

All too often we are inundated with the same tragic cycle. An individual with an assault weapon opens fire on a large amount of people. The media talks about mental health problems in the individual, the victims are laid to rest and the story fades away then it happens again and the cycle repeats. Gun laws remain relatively unchanged as does the mental health system. This blog will attempt to shed some light on some of the current issues related to this horrible phenomenon.

Mr. Muncie speaking
While watching the recent events in Parkland, Florida unfold through the media in real time I was struck by an interview with the Parkland schools superintendent Mr. Robert Runcie. The full scope of the calamity as well as the identity of the shooter had yet to be announced, but he made a very ominous and all too familiar suggestion at the end of his interview, “Mental health issues are growing and they are a big challenge and it’s something that’s going to need to certainly be addressed.” As more information came out, we learned the shooter was essentially a ticking time-bomb, who had suffered many losses and displayed many red flags as to his ability to cope with them in the form of maladaptive behaviors.  We have heard how the community reached out to authorities to express their concerns relating to this individual and those calls went unheeded. There are many systemic failures in this case and I will attempt to shed light on some of them

Anyone who watches mainstream media, reads alternative media or just bops around social media can see that gun control is a hot topic following these events. The voices of certain groups call for a ban on everything from assault rifles, to a ban on guns altogether while another group rushes to defend the second amendment.  Within those two camps are litany of ideas and the one that I think bares the most relevance to this blog post is the idea of stopping mentally ill individuals from purchasing guns. Statistically the mentally ill are more likely to be victims of gun violence than they are to perpetrate it. (Gold, Simon & Knoll, 2015) Yet according to Knoll mass shootings by  people with serious mental illness represent only 1% of yearly gun related homicides or 110 individuals killed. Knoll also rightfully discusses the fact that calling out those with a mental health diagnosis reinforces a negative stigma to mental illness, which creates a major barrier to treatment and worsens the overall public health burden of mental illness.

110 people killed per year in mass shooting events is still a high number so what is being done about it? According to Knoll, attempting to bar the mentally ill from owning firearms will yield little return in terms of lives saved as only 1% of mass shooting deaths can be attributed to the mentally ill, yet lawmakers have written and passed plenty of legislation to do just that. Federal law dictates that anyone committed to a psychiatric hospital or anyone deemed incompetent by a court can be barred from purchasing or owning a firearm according to the Gun Control act of 1968. Yet there are many who don’t understand what that means. People can be held in a psychiatric hospital for anywhere from 72 hours to 10 days while they are being assessed. Those individuals are not necessarily barred from owning firearms. Someone may have had a very difficult day, and made a non-fatal attempt at suicide, at which point they were brought to a hospital against their will. After 72 hours they may report that they feel their suicide attempt was an error, they may discuss future oriented goals, and may then be released. These individuals would not be deemed certified and therefor would be able to walk out of the hospital, and barring any other issues, they would be able to purchase a gun. If after they are held, a psychiatrist deems they need to remain hospitalized that psychiatrist must bring that patient to mental health court and ask that the patient be committed to continue treatment. If the court agrees, the patient is then committed and according to federal law, they are now banned from purchasing or owning firearms.  Being deemed incompetent similarly requires court action in conjunction with a medical professional who must assess an individual. One must file a petition in court to have an individual assessed for competency through psychological testing and if the court sees fit, they will rely on the results of that competency evaluation. These cases may involve an elderly individual suffering from dementia, or someone who commits a crime, but is unable to understand the court proceedings and/or communicate meaningfully with their attorney secondary to mental illness, developmental disabilities, Brain injury, etc. (“How to Legally Declare Someone as Mentally Incompetent?”, 2018) For example, imagine someone who is involved in a car accident while driving intoxicated and is left in a vegetative state after the accident. That individual would be more than likely deemed incompetent, as they wouldn’t be able to understand the proceedings. This may also be the case in the event someone is deemed a threat to themselves or deemed unable to manage their own affairs.

Now that we understand the criteria for someone with mental illness to be banned from owning a gun, we can see that as long as an individual is not committed or deemed incompetent, then they cannot be barred from purchasing a weapon based on mental health issues.

In his film entitled “Bowling For Columbine” Michael Moore went after the pharmaceutical industry and their role in the current spate of mass shootings.  Moore suggests that the Columbine shooting occurred for no other reason than the fact that the shooters were prescribed Prozac. If we consider that claim we find a mixed bag of data. According to Yasmina Molero and her research, the data regarding homicidal behavior is inconclusive and individuality cannot be ruled out. She did report an interesting observation regarding dosing of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors IE: Prozac, Zoloft Etc. and increased potential for violence. She found that adolescents on low doses of SSRI medications are at a greater risk for the potential to violence and suggests further study on this topic. She did not find the same risks in older patients or adolescents on higher doses of SSRI’s. Since 2004 Fluoxetine also known as Prozac carries a black box warning regarding increased risk of suicidal ideation. When we combine the black box warning with the observation of Molero, one may see an easy leap to the conclusion that Prozac was to blame for Columbine, but like many areas of information in the modern world this is only a superficial correlation. A study from Hungary showed the exact opposite to be true. The authors of this study found contradictory data to the FDA warning and rather than seeing a decrease in completed suicides, the countries where the black box warning was displayed saw decreased usage of antidepressants and increased numbers of completed suicides. In Hungary where the black box warning was not issued the authors found increased usage of antidepressants and decreased numbers of completed suicides. (Ekundayo et al. 1-18). In the case of mass shooters who are taking psychotropic medications it is important to realize that they were prescribed these medications for a reason. Someone was concerned enough to take these individuals to a Doctor and that doctor saw enough behavioral symptoms (maladaptive behaviors) to decide to try a medication to help alleviate those symptoms. In other words, theoretically the behavior of the individual was already outside the societal norms and the current medical model is to treat maladaptive behaviors with therapy and/or medicine.

When we look at mass shooting events we need to remember one thing, At the end of the day, an individual carries out an act. That individual may be suffering from a mental illness, they may not be. They may or may not be able to manage their thoughts or their moods. They may be on specific medication, they may not be, but for all mass shooting events two variables remain the same. The individual who perpetrates a mass shooting needs a gun and themselves to complete the act. Without that combination there is no mass shooting.  That to me is the area where we have the most pressing need to make changes. The media plays a very important role in pushing agendas after these tragic events, whether filling the airwaves with pundits calling for more gun control, or calling for more guns. It is very difficult to find answers and I hope this blog helps one to understand at least some of the mental health debate that often comes up. At the end of the day, we will never know who is going to perpetrate a horrendous crime such as a mass shooting. We can certainly look for warning signs, but how to decipher a cry for help versus an imminent threat remains an area where we must be vigilant. We also must be vigilant not to make assumptions about someone because they have a mental illness. Mental illness is a disease like diabetes, or heart disease. Sometimes lifestyle choices may have led them into it, sometimes it is completely organic and there was nothing anyone can do. We must remain empathetic if we are to create avenues to treatment and healing as opposed to pathways to a police state. In the early 1960’s Bob Dylan penned his song “Blowing in The Wind” “/” as I worked on this blog I was reminded of the line “How many times must the cannonballs fly, before they are forever banned.” We all know, the answer is blowing in the wind.


Ekundayo, Otuyelu et al. “ANTIDEPRESSANT DRUGS AND TEENAGE SUICIDE IN HUNGARY: TIME TREND AND SEASONALITY ANALYSIS.” International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice (2015): 1-18. Web. 6 Feb. 2018.

Gold, L., Simon, R., & Knoll, J. (2015). Gun violence and mental illness (1st ed., pp. 81-99). Arlington Virginia: American Psychiatric publishing.

How to Legally Declare Someone as Mentally Incompetent?. (2018). The Law Dictionary. Retrieved 20 February 2018, from

Molero, Yasmina et al. “Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors And Violent Crime: A Cohort Study.” PLOS Medicine 12.9 (2015): e1001875. Web.

Fact vs Fiction: How to Give CPR

CPR, also known as Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, is a medical procedure involving repeated compression of a patient’s chest, performed in an attempt to restore the blood circulation and breathing of a person who has suffered cardiac arrest. CPR certification is needed for a variety of jobs and professions, from doctors all the way through to lifeguards. While the steps performed for CPR have been revised over the years, the technique has largely stayed the same.

According to the American Red Cross, British Heart Foundation, and Healthdirect Australia, the steps to performing CPR are mostly simple and straightforward:


Before Giving CPR-

  • Check the scene and make sure it’s safe.
  • Call 911 for assistance .
  • Open the airway. With the person lying on their back, tilt their head slightly to life their chin.
  • Check for breathing. Listen carefully, for no more than 10 seconds, for sounds of breathing. If there is no breathing, being CPR.


CPR Steps-

  • Push hard, push fast. Place your hands, one on top of the other, in the middle of the chest. Use your body weight to help you administer compression’s that are at least 2 inches deep and delivered at a rate of at least 100 compression’s per minute.
  • Deliver rescue breaths. With the person’s head tilted back slightly and the chin lifted, pinch the nose shut and place your mouth over the person’s mouth to make a complete seal. Blow into the person’s mouth to make the chest rise. Deliver two rescue breaths, then continue compression’s.
  • Continue CPR steps. Keep performing cycles of chest compression’s and breathing until the person exhibits signs of life, such as breathing, an AED becomes available, or EMS or a trained medical responder arrives on scene.


For all intents and purposes, this is the universal method for performing CPR. You’re on a safari trip in Africa and some has a heart attack? This is how you perform CPR. Enjoying a swim in the Mediterranean Sea and someone drowns? This is how you perform CPR. Skiing down to side of Mount Everest and someone collapses? This is how you perform CPR.

So if this is the case, one question must be asked: Why is CPR performed so poorly throughout our media? Take this clip from the movie “Poseidon” for example:

Aside from the steps performed prior to giving CPR (after all, they are on a sinking, upside down cruise ship), how does Kurt Russell’s character fail to perform quality CPR? Well first off, he is performing the steps out of order. Kurt decides to first give rescue breaths, followed by embarrassingly small amount of compression’s, and THEN decided to check to see if the person is breathing. Secondly, he is not performing CPR for long enough in order for it to have its desired effect.

How about we take a look at a different clip from the popular show “Lost”:

In this scene, Jack, one of the foremost cardiac surgeons in the world, is giving his buddy, Charlie, CPR. While keeping in mind the CPR steps listed above, we see Jack doing a pretty admirable job performing CPR… until the 2:07 mark of the video. Now, I get dramatic effect and everything, but word to the wise- don’t start hammer fisting the chest of a person who is not breathing. This will not have the effect it did in this clip and will likely decrease the chances of saving that person.

Well, if you think that clip is comical, this clip from “Breaking Bad” is even worse:

Here we have Jesse attempting CPR on his girlfriend, who likely had an overdose, and boy do we see some problems here. To start it off (and unlike the previous two clips where they were stranded on a sinking boat and hidden island) Jesse should have started the process off by calling 911. His positioning is also off, as he is straddling the victim instead of kneeling perpendicular to her. Not only that, he’s performing CPR while on a mattress. How are you supposed compress the chest down two inches when you are essentially bouncing them up and down on springs? On top of that, the procedure is performed completely wrong, with no rescue breaths being given.


So what can we learn from this? First off, don’t try CPR without getting the proper training and certification. CPR classes are given all throughout the country, and can be taken, in some states, starting at 9 years old. Secondly, don’t imitate the techniques or procedures used in popular or mainstream media. CPR is universal, and performed the same way everywhere. If you see a new method used somewhere else, they are likely performing it incorrectly. Lastly, keep up to date with all advances and changes made for CPR. The ratio of compression’s to breaths in children vs adults have changed in the last 10 years. Also, the invention of the AED, or automated external defibrillator, has revolutionized CPR. Keep up to date with these new inventions and regulations and it could be the difference between life and death.








The #MeToo Movement: Fact vs. Fiction

The #metoo movement began in October of 2017 as a virtual hashtag to demonstrate the widespread prevalence of sexual assault and harassment. Tarana Burke originally founded the me too movement to help survivors of sexual violence find a pathway to healing. The movement promoted the idea of “empowerment through empathy” as millions of women posted #metoo across social media. 

The #metoo movement has encouraged millions to speak out against sexual violence towards women, particularly in the workplace. Time magazine named the movement person of the year. The cover proudly displayed the “silence breakers,” brave women who first confronted sexual harassment and assault. 

The Time magazine article highlights the frustration women in the workplace face when as their bosses cross boundaries or make them feel powerless. The article conveys women do not speak out for they fear retaliation or being fired. These “silence breakers” speak out in support of preventing sexual harassment in the workplace and are encouraging others to do the same.

A recent article published by Brunner and Dever (2014) investigated the prevalence of sexual harassment in the “new economy”. Male and female participants simply could not imagine a workplace free from the influence of appearance and sexuality. They further discussed examples of how power and sexuality infiltrated daily, routine interactions. These findings further support the motivations behind the #metoo movement.

CNN further supports the #metoo movement, speculating the social hashtag could result in social change and reduce sexual abuse of women. The article further calls for men to begin speaking up to truly institute change. Velasquez and LaRose (2015) investigate the impact of effective social media campaigns and determined positive experience online with activism to encourage political activism. This theory applies directly to the #metoo movement. Increased online involvement will lead to increased public awareness and support.


Brunner, L. K., & Dever, M. (2014). Work, Bodies and Boundaries: Talking Sexual Harassment in the New Economy. Gender, Work & Organization, 21(5), 459-471. doi:10.1111/gwao.12048

Eliana, D., Hayley, E., & Stephanie, Z. (2017, December 18). Person of the Year 2017: The Silence Breakers. Time Magazine. Retrieved February 15, 2018, from

LaMotte, S. (2017, November 09). #MeToo: From social campaign to social change? Retrieved February 19, 2018, from

Velasquez, A., & LaRose, R. (2015). Social Media for Social Change: Social Media Political Efficacy and Activism in Student Activist Groups. Journal Of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 59(3), 456-474. doi:10.1080/08838151.2015.1054998



Hospital acquired infection

What is an Hospital Acquired Infection?

A Hospital Acquired Infection is an infection that a patient receives in the hospital during their stay. It can happen after surgery by getting and infection in the surgical incision, pneumonia, MRSA and or C-DIFF for example. “health care–associated infections, 1 in 25 patients in the acute care setting will develop a health care–associated infection during their hospital stay. In 2011, roughly 722 000 patients had a hospital acquired infection and around 75 000 of those patients died” (Haversack, 2017).


What can a Hospital Acquired Infection lead too?

If a patient develops a hospital acquired infection it can lead to a longer hospital stay, health complications and may lead to death. Education on how to prevent hospital acquired infection should be taught to all patients. The more knowledge we know the less chance a patient will develop a hospital acquired infection.



How to prevent Hospital Acquired Infections?

The best way to prevent the spread of germs is hand washing.

How to properly wash your hands

  1. Turn on water and wet hands.
  2. Add a coin size amount of soap
  3. Scrub hands together for 20 seconds, or sing happy birthday twice.
  4. Since hands from wrist to finger tips.
  5. Dry hands with paper towel.
  6. Grab new paper towel and shut off sink.

When should we wash our hands?

“Hand decontamination should take place before and after patient contact, after contact with the patient’s environment or body fluids, when hands are visibly soiled, before and after an aseptic procedure and after removing gloves” (Rigby,2017).

  • Before, during, and after preparing food
  • Before eating food
  • Before and after caring for someone who is sick
  • Before and after treating a cut or wound
  • After using the toilet
  • After blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing
  • After touching an animal, animal feed, or animal waste
  • After touching garbage
  • Decontaminated hands


 Reasons for Poor Hand Hygiene 

  • Ineffective placements of dispensers or sinks
  • Hand hygiene isn’t stressed
  • Ineffective of insufficient education on hand washing
  • Health professionals carrying supplies and having their hands full
  • Wearing gloves
  • Thinking hand hygiene isn’t needed if they are wearing gloves
  • Health professionals forget to wash their hands
  • Distractions happen during the hand hygiene process


To prevent the spread of germs to patient to patient we in healthcare need to wash our hands and we need to continuously educate our patients and other staff members of the importance of hand hygiene. Washing your hands will save lives 


Haverstick, S. (2017). Patients’ Hand Washing and Reducing Hospital-Acquired Infection. Critical Care Nurse37(3), e1-e8. doi:10.4037/ccn2017694

Karsh, J. A. (2017). Hand Hygiene Do’s & Don’ts. H&HN: Hospitals & Health Networks91(5), 39-42.

Rigby, R., Pegram, A., & Woodward, S. (2017). Hand decontamination in clinical practice: a review of the evidence. British Journal Of Nursing26(8), 448-451.


Type 2 Diabetes

The Truth about Type 2 Diabetes


By: Agência Brasil Fotografias


Type 2 diabetes is also known as non-insulin dependent diabetes. It can sometimes be managed with a healthy diet and exercise. It is known to appear in adulthood however can affect children especially if they are obese.

Those with diabetes may not produce enough insulin or may have an insulin resistance. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that help the body bring sugar from the blood into the cells as a source of energy.

The goal of treatment is to maintain blood sugar levels, prevent complications and to control symptoms


By: Matthew Hutchinson


The recommended diet for those with this diagnosis is:


  • Limit refined sugars like the sugar in candy or soda
  • Limit salt in diet
  • Limit fat
  • Drink alcohol in moderation
  • Focus on eating starches, vegetables, fruit and proteins low in fat

It is important to manage blood sugar levels because with increased sugar in the blood it puts a person at risk for heart disease, kidney disease and vision loss.


Some Important Facts About Type 2 Diabetes:

With a lack of insulin there is excess sugar in the blood which acts like glass shards tearing at the arteries lining. This causes scarring and a smaller passageway for blood to pass (Arthrosclerosis).
• Excess sugar and atherosclerosis increases the risk for heart attack and heart disease
• Because it is so easy for the sugar to damage arteries in the kidneys there is an increased risk for kidney disease



Debunking the myths:


All those diagnosed with type 2 are overweight.

FALSE But it is more likely.

• You cannot eat any carbs.

FALSE carbs should be limited but can be eaten.

• Food that is labeled “Diabetic” can be eaten as much as you want.

FALSE They can be high in sorbitol and fructose.

• You will know if you have type 2 diabetes.

FALSE Type 2 diabetes is often described as insidious and many are not aware of their symptoms. It is type 1 diabetes where people are more symptomatic



The most reliable sources state that the risk for type 2 is higher when the person is overweight but not always because diet and insulin production vary in every person.



Because carbs can be a source or energy it is not recommended to eat 0 carbs, but to limit them as explained in the video below





Mathews, M. J., Liebenberg, L., & Mathews, E. H. (2015). How do high glycemic load diets influence coronary heart disease?. Nutrition & Metabolism, 12(1), 1-15. doi:10.1186/s12986-015-0001-x
Nazarko, L. (2010). Treatment of type 2 diabetes. British Journal Of Healthcare Assistants, 4(3), 124-1
Mellor, D. (2012). A review of the current nutritional guidelines for diabetes. Practice Nursing, 23(5), 234-240.