Type II Diabetes

What you need to know about type 2 diabetes:

-Most common type of diabetes.

-Type II diabetes causes insulin resistant (which means that your pancreas is not using insulin properly).

Symptoms of high blood sugar.      

  • Increased thirst.
  • Headaches.
  • Blurred Vision.
  • Frequent urination.
  • Fatigue.

Symptoms of low blood sugar. 

  • Excessive sweating, hunger, fatigue and shakiness.
  • Nausea/vomiting.
  • Mental confusion.
  • Palpitations.

Watch this video to learn about Type II diabetes

Its all about the support!

Life style changes (American Diabetes Association, 2018)

  • Timing of your meals
  • How much to eat- Consult your PCP and Nutritionist
  • What foods to choose- Find some helpful resources! Visit http://www.diabetes.org
  • Increase your physical activity.


  • Diet
  • Exercise
  • Oral medications
  • Insulin




American Diabetes Association. (2018). Retrieved from http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/type-2/?loc=util-header_type2

Effective Type 2 Diabetes Diet Plan: See top Foods & Plans to Reverse Type 2 Diabates (2016). Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rnZmDCYkxiQ

Living with type 2 Diabetes: Finding the support you need. (2014). Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y2NyG-7kHmE

Understanding Type 2 Diabetes. (2014). Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JAjZv41iUJU

Lets Talk About The Flu

As the seasons change, the weather gets cooler and colds and the flu becomes more common.

What is the Flu?

Influenza virus, aka “the flu”, is more serious than the common cold. It is an upper respiratory tract infection that affects the lungs, nose, and throat. Individuals at high risk are young children, elderly adults, pregnant women, and anyone with a weakened immune system.

The flu spreads through three routes, airborne (i.e. coughs and sneezes), skin to skin contact (i.e. handshakes and hugs), and saliva (i.e. kissing or sharing of drinks).


  • fever
  • chills
  • severe muscle or body aches
  • headaches
  • coughing
  • sore throat
  • fatigue

Serious complications of flu can include bacterial pneumonia, ear infections, sinus infections, and dehydration. Unlike the common cold, the flu kills thousands of people every year.


  • Self care – (rest and fluids)
  • decongestant (relieves nasal congestion and runny nose)
  • cough medicine (blocks the cough reflex)
  • non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (Tylenol or Motrin) – relieves pain and reduces fever
  • antiviral medication (Tamiflu) – reduces viruses’ ability to replicate and duration of the virus

Tamiflu is available by prescription only. It is used to treat the flu in children and adults as long as it is taken within 24 hours of the onset of symptoms. However, what is not commonly known to the public are the side effects associated with the use of the medication. The major side effects include abnormal neurological or psychiatric behaviors (38%), delusions/perceptual disturbances (21.7%), hallucinations, convulsions, and even encephalitis (Sang Won et al., 2015). These side effects lead to accidents, injuries, and suicides (Sang et al., 2015).



Yearly vaccine help prevent the flu and limit the complications. Flu vaccines cause antibodies to develop in the body. These antibodies provide protection against infection with the viruses that are in the vaccine. Types of vaccines include nasal sprays (live virus), trivalent (grown in eggs), and quadrivalent (grown in cell culture).


Good hygiene, such as washing your hands and covering your cough will help protect you and others against influenza infections. Use soap and water or an alcohol-based hand sanitizer (i.e.Purell) to clean hands. Viruses commonly live on phones, door knobs, money, so when we use our hands and then rub our eyes or nose, we expose ourselves to possible infections.

By: Random Retail

Don’t let the flu catch you, know the signs, symptoms, and treatments of the flu.  The best ways to prevent the flu is through a yearly flu vaccine and good hand hygiene.

Knowing this could just save your life.



Prevent Flu! Get a Flu Vaccine and Take Preventative Actions. (April, 2017). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QvyaE_eXDJU&t=1s

Sang Won, J., & Changsu, H. (2015). Psychiatric Symptoms in a Patient with Influenza A (H1N1) Treated with Oseltamivir (Tamiflu): A Case Report. Clinical Psychopharmacology & Neuroscience, 13(2), 209-211.

Tamiflu. (March, 2015). ABCTVcatalyst. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wiqb9U3hup0


The Beauty Industry’s Brainwashed Orphans

Speaking and writing about the one dimensional beauty industry agenda revolves around the bombardment of images that constantly tell us that we are not good enough until we buy their products. Using a “anti-aging” advertisement, we can even see a clear distinct alteration to the photo that is make it most obviously computer generated and now inherently fake. Yet we continue to buy these snake oil merchandises in the hopes that we will see benefits like the make believe images that portray them.

Taking a look at another anti aging advertisement, we can notice a connection between cultural beauty and obvious physical age. An older look is portrayed with a dull and grayish tone, as seen in the first image posted, while the younger looking image is bright and the color white is used extraordinarily persuasively for the images that mean to be appealing towards the consumer.

This ageism attitude towards beauty gives a fleeting and decaying currency the means to provide women with status in Western culture (Clarke, 2017). For example, one of the most prestigious women featured in monthly magazines is Jennifer Aniston. This actress seemed to have defied aging and therefore, defied the decay of her class status as other actress who’s careers started at the same level at the same time have all but crashed and burned. In fact, women in general are hardly ever held to such a high regard as when they are pretty.

When “famous american women” is put into google, more than 90% of the results are either young and attractive actresses, athletes, or musicians and half the time they aren’t even ranked by their talent. Looking at a timeline of the development of these attitudes, we are living at an all time high of sexist cultural attitudes towards the sexualization of women, which I think is perpetuated by females. This perpetuation does have links, however, to the image bombardment of beauty culture.

Whether women, and men, realize it or not, they are constantly being conditioned to foster attitudes that are dependent on the beauty product suppliers. A revenue based, brainwashing war has been waged on American society by people who have doctorates in human sociology and psychology and an almost limitless supply of funding. A resistance in needed in everyone’s mind to fight and destroy these destructive attitudes and images that weasel their way into our thoughts and subconscious.


Clarke, L. H. (2017). Women, Aging, and Beauty Culture: Navigating the Social Perils of Looking Old. Generations, 41(4), 104-108.

Battling Edema in the Early Stages


In todays world ergonomics can help relieve swollen ankles.

What is Edema?

  • Edema is swelling in any portion of your body due to a build up of water and protein.
  • Lower extremity edema is most prevelant
  • Primary onset symptoms are treated with elevation, compression stockings and proper nutrition coupled with exercise.
  • Stages are 0, 1, 2, 3 (stages 2 and 3 require aggressive medical interventioon.
  • March is National World Lymphedema Month
  • March 6 is National Lymphedema Day
  • There is no cure for Lymphedema at this time.
  • Lymphedema is the “Hidden Epidemic”



How to Manage Edema at Early Onset!

  1. Exercise, proper nutrition and footwear are the easiest ways to begin.
  • Exercise can help prevent a multitude of problems from an accummulation of edema in your legs.
  • Current research indicates that exercise and proper nutrition coupled with proper footwear and compression stockings can regress the accummulation of fluid your body retains.
  • Your lymphatic system runs parallel to your circulatory system and acts as a filter for all the toxins we process every day.


2) Educate your self about the types of edema and prevention

  • The brief video above discusses how fluid originates and transports throughout your body.
  • For further information you can read several studies by Dr. & Mrs. Etelka Foldi, founders of the first Lymphedema Clinic In Germany.

3) Rest, Elevate, and Drink lots of Water  (Simple Fixes)

There are several schools of thought but for simple edema control this is the easiest.  Once you have consulted your physician, educate yourself and follow these simple rules.

Now What?

The suggestions above were just that suggestions.  They are simple and free of charge.  If you see no change, communicate and advocate for another review of your symptoms with your physician.  While there is little known around the world about edema/lymphedema there is a movement of interested practitioners and patients who are advocating for insurance reimbursement, educated physicians and fair treatment in Washington.  Be one of those advocates.


Sites to Research








By: Practical Cures

Diabetes Management Fact vs. Fiction by Alyssa Frates

What is Diabetes?  

Diabetes is a medical condition that causes there to be too much sugar in the body. The body lacks the ability to make insulin, which helps break down sugars. There are so many people who have poor control of their blood sugar levels and have complications from it.

Signs and symptoms of Diabetes:

  • Polydipsia- increased thirst
  • Polyuria-increased urination
  • Polyphagia- excessive hunger/eating
  • unexplained weight loss, dehydration, lethargy/weakness, confusion, warm, dry, and flushed skin, recurrent infections or delayed wound healing and nausea vomiting, or abdominal
  • Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)- shakiness, nervousness, diaphoresis, headache, confusion, dizziness, pallor, etc.
  • Hyperglycemia (high blood sugar)-confusion, lethargy, thirst, N/V, rapid respirations, & fruity breath

Complications that can occur:

  • kidney disease (nephropathy)
  • Eye conditions (retinopathy)
  • Nerve damage to the hands and/ or feet (Neuropathy)
  • Skin conditions: more likely to develop bacterial and fungal infections
  • Hearing loss
  • Heart disease
  • Stroke


Myth: As a type 2 diabetic I will only be able to take insulin to manage my blood sugars

Fact: As this is true for Type 1 Diabetics, this is not true for people who have type 2 diabetes.

Complications from diabetes arise from lack of proper glucose control. Each treatment plan is individualized to the patient. Most therapies require medications. Medications work by decreasing the blood glucose levels. Most times oral medications are used. Insulin is used for purposes of maintaining a longer acting agent to keep blood glucose levels decreased. The treatment goals for these medications are to maintain a patients A1c level with one medication. If levels are not maintained, then more than one medication can be used to reach an optimal A1C level. The video above focuses on diabetic treatment. It focused on the medications used to treat and manage diabetes.

Prevention and Management

Following a diabetic diet:

  • Carbohydrate counting and proper portion sizes. Eat smaller portions throughout the day
  • Carbs have the most sugars in them, so they have the biggest impact on your blood sugar levels
  • For portion sizes have a good mixture of starches, fruits and vegetables, proteins and fats.
  • Limit foods high in fat, sugar and salt
  • Avoid use of alcohol

Exercise and Weight Management

  •   Exercise at least 30 – 45 minutes a day
  •   Always set a goal when exercising
  •  Make sure you drink plenty of water and always have a snack available (just in case your blood sugar gets to low)
  •  Wear a necklace or bracelet that says you are a diabetic in case of an emergency
  •  Check your blood sugar before you exercise, check it during exercise if you are working out more than 45 minutes, and check it again right after exercise
  •  Weight management is a main goal in treating diabetes
  • A healthy weight can lead to less complications caused by diabetes and better blood sugar levels, it has also proven to reduce the amount medications needed to control blood sugar levels.

Treatment Plan:

  •  It is important to take any medications that your doctor orders for you.
  •  The treatment plan you doctor creates is individualized to you
  • Complications from diabetes can occur due to improper blood sugar control
  •  It is important to check your blood sugars while taking any medications. If your sugar remains high or drops to low the medication dosing may not be right for you
  •  Always take your medications at the same time everyday

Myth: I don’t have to follow the regimen the doctors gave me.

Fact: Every patient must follow the treatment plan their doctors have prescribed for them.

In the article: Factors associated with therapy noncompliance in type-2 diabetes patients  it focuses on patients that are non compliant with their diabetic regimen.  When a person is being non-compliant with their regimen it can mean a variety of things. They may have not started treatment or may not be taking their prescribed medications correctly. In this article s study was done with 79 patients. The study was to determine medication compliance. They observed this in 2 ways; one way was medication and the other lifestyle changes. Some weren’t compliant due to the fact of patients having underlying conditions. The results showed 42% of people studied were non-compliant with their regimens. This last video I found: Motivational Interviewing Diabetes Medication Compliance, interviewed a patient who had been diagnosed with diabetes but has trouble accepting the diagnoses. This patient speaks about the difficulties surrounding why he has trouble accepting the diagnosis and why he has trouble taking the medication the doctor has prescribed the medications. This is what most people deal with on a daily basis and why many people are not compliant with the treatment regimen doctors prescribe.


Hernández-Ronquillo, L., Téllez-Zenteno, J. F., Garduño-Espinosa, J., & González-   Aceve  (2003). Factors associated with therapy noncompliance in type-2 diabetes patients.Salud Publica De Mexico, 45(3), 191-197.

http://library.neit.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db   =cmedm&AN=12870420&site=ehost-live

Newlin Lew, K. (2015). Pharmacotherapy of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Navigating Current and New Therapies. MEDSURG Nursing, 24(6), 413-438.



Schub T; Kornusky. Diabetes Mellitus Type 1. J CINAHL Nursing Guide
EBSCO Publishing 2014  from

The management of adult diabetes services in the NHS: progress review. Operating Theatre Journal, (302), 2015









Hospital Acquired Infection

What is a Hospital Acquired Infection (HAI)?

An infection that is not active prior to healthcare interventions. Often a result of poor infection control compliance.

– Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America


Why is this important? 

  • Increasing bacterial resistance to traditional antibiotic treatment.
    • Bacteria are tougher than ever!
  • Higher acuity of patients living in the community.
    • Increasing daily exposure to bacteria and other potential pathogens.

“In hospitals, 1 out of 20 patients develops an HAI.”

“Nationwide, 2 million people develop an HAI each year.”

“Nearly 99,000 of these patients die as a result of their infection.”

– Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America

Healthcare Professional (HCP) Prevention 

  • Adhere to proper hand hygiene
  • Use of appropriate isolation precautions
  • Meticulous disinfection/sterilization of medical equipment
  • Proper use of aseptic technique
  • Proper disposal of biohazards materials and sharps
  • Surveillance and monitoring infections
  • Patient education

What can I do to protect myself? 

  • Hand washing
    • (the number on way to reduce the spread of infection!)
  • Maintain a healthy lifestyle, include exercise and nutritional diet.
  • Advocate for yourself! Ask your HCPs if they washed their hands!
  • Know signs and symptoms of infection and seek early treatment
  • Stay up to date on immunizations/vaccines
  • Minimize time spent in medical facilities

It’s in your hands! 


(2015). Fox News Should I worry about hospital-acquired infections? [mp3]. Available from YouTube https://youtu.be/OKfBUWt4RtQ.

Fox, C., Wavra, T., Drake, D., Mulligan, D., Jones, L., & Bennett, Y. (2015). Use of patient hand hygiene protocol to reduce hospital-acquired infections and improve nurses’ hand washing. American journal of critical care, 24(3), 216-224. http://dx.doi.org/10.4037/ajcc2015898

Garrett Jr, J. H. (2015). A Review of the CDC Recommendations for Prevention of HAIs in Outpatient Setting. AORN Journal, 101(5), 519-528. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aorn.2015.02.007

Loffler, H., Bruckner, T., Diepgen, T., & Effendy, I. (2006). Primary prevention in health care employees: a prospective intervention study with a 3-year training period. Contact Dermatitis, 54, 202-209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0105-1873.2006.00825

Paulo, L. (2008). Hospital-Acquired Infections can be deadly [mp3]. Available from YouTube https://youtu.be/OejyDFEd-2c.

Spruce, L. (2013). Back to basics: hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis. AORN, 98(50), 449-460. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aorn.2013.08.017

Walsh, M.D., E., & McCoy, N. (2008). PBS Second Opion Hospital Acquired Infection (Peter Seigal, M.D., Interviewer) [mp3]. Available from YouTube https://youtu.be/eHjWPkOtAaw.